1930 India NOBEL PRIZE Physicist Sir CV Raman press photo S. LEWIS INDIAN

1930 India NOBEL PRIZE Physicist Sir CV Raman press photo S. LEWIS INDIAN

1930 India NOBEL PRIZE Physicist Sir CV Raman press photo S. LEWIS INDIAN

A fantastically rare photo of Nobel Prize winners Sir CV Raman and Sinclair Lewis in Sweden measuring 8X10 inches. He was born near a small village in Tiruchirapalli to R. Chandrasekhara Iyer and Parvathi Ammal. His father, initially a school teacher, became a lecturer in mathematics and physics in a college in Vishakhapatnam. Raman studied in St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School at Vishakapatnam. He was a brilliant student and passed his matriculation examination when he was just 11. At the age of 13 he passed his F. Examination (equivalent to today’s intermediate examination) with a scholarship. He joined the Presidency College in Madras in 1902 and received his B. In physics in 1904. He topped the exams and won a gold medal. Three years later, he earned his M. Career Though he was deeply interested in science, he appeared for the Financial Civil Service (FCS) examination at the insistence of his father. He topped the examination and went to Calcutta in 1907 to join the Indian Finance Department as Assistant Accountant General. Still his heart was in scientific research and he began conducting research at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Sciences during his free time. His job was very hectic, yet he was so dedicated towards science that he often spent nights at research. Even though the facilities available at the association were very limited, it did not deter Raman at all who went on to publish his findings in leading international journals like’Nature’,’The Philosophical Magazine’, and’Physics Review’. During this time, his research was basically in the areas of vibrations and acoustics. In 1917, he got the opportunity to join the University of Calcutta as the first Palit Professor of Physics. Raman happily resigned from his government post to take up this position though the new job paid much less than the previous one. Such was his dedication to science. In 1919, he was made the Honorary Secretary of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, a post he held till 1933. He was very popular and many students gathered around him, attracted by his immense knowledge of science. During the late 1920s he experimented on the scattering of light by observing the behavior of monochromatic light which penetrated transparent materials and fell on a spectrograph. This led to the discovery of what came to be known as’Raman Effect’ which he presented at a meeting of scientists in 1928. He was invited by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore to become its Director. He accepted the post in 1933, becoming the first Indian to hold this post. He served as the director till 1937 though he continued as the head of the Physics Department till 1948. In 1948 he established the Raman Research Institute (RRI) in Bangalore for conducting scientific research in different fields of physics. He continued with his research in the institute till his death. Major Works He is best known for discovering the’Raman Effect’, or the inelastic scattering of a photon. He showed through experimentation that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This was a ground breaking discovery in early 20th century physics. Awards & Achievements He won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman Effect”, becoming the first Indian to win a Nobel Prize in the sciences. He was honored with the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 1954 in recognition of his invaluable contributions to the field of science. Personal Life & Legacy He married Lokasundari Ammal in 1907 and had two sons with her-Chandrasekhar and Radhakrishnan. He lived a long and productive life and was active till the very end. He died in 1970 at the age of 82. Trivia This great scientist was the paternal uncle of another excellent scientist and Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. A Child Genius Tiruchirapalli is a town on the banks of the river Cauvery. Chandrasekhara Ayyar was a teacher in a school there. He was a scholar in Physics and Mathematics. His wife was Parvathi Ammal. Their second son was born on 7th November 1888. They named the boy Venkata Raman. He was also called Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman or C. Raman grew up in an atmosphere of music, Sanskrit literature and Science. He stood first in every class and was. Talked about as a child genius. He joined the B. Class of the Presidency College. In the year 1905, he was the only boy who passed in the first class. He won a gold medal, too. He joined the M. Class in the same college and chose Physics (study of matter and energy) as the main subject of study. Love of science, enthusiasm for work and the curiosity to learn new things were natural to Raman. Nature had also given him the power of concentration and intelligence. He used to read more than what was taught in the class. When doubts arose he would set down questions like’How? And’Is this true? In the Margin in the textbooks. The works of the German scientist Helmhotlz (1821 – 1891) and the English scientist Lord Raleigh (1842 – 1919) on acoustics (the study of sound) influenced Raman. He took immense interest in the study of sound. When he was eighteen years of age, one of his research papers was -published in the’Philosophical Magazine’ of England. Later another paper was published in the scientific journal’Nature’. Officer – Scientist Raman’s elder brother C. Ayyar was in the’Indian Audit and Accounts Service’ I. Raman also wanted to enter the same department. So he sat for the competitive examination. The day before this examination, the results of the M. He had passed in first class recording the highest marks in Madras University up to that time. He stood first in the I. On May 6, 1907, Raman married Lokasundari Ammal. At the age of nineteen, Raman held a high post in the government. He was appointed as the Assistant Accountant General in the Finance Department in Calcutta. And the same year something happened to give a new turn to his life. 210, Bow Bazaar Street One evening Raman was returning from his office in a tramcar. He saw the name plate of the’Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science’ at 210, Bow Bazaar Street. Immediately he got off the tram and went in. Amritlal Sircar was the Honarary Secretary of the Association. There were spacious rooms and old scientific instruments, which could be used for demonstration of experiments. Raman asked whether he could conduct research there in his spare time. Raman took up a house adjoining the Association. A door was provided between his house and the laboratory. His mornings and nights were devoted to research. This gave him full satisfaction. So he continued his ceaseless activities in Calcutta. From Accounts to Science At that time Burma and India were under a single government. In 1909, Raman was transferred to. Rangoon, the capital of Burma. When Chandrasekhara Ayyar passed away in 1910, Raman came to Madras on six months’ leave. After completing the last rites, Raman spent the rest of his leave period doing research in the Madras University laboratories. The Science College of Calcutta University was started in 1915. There a chair for Physics was established in memory of Taraknath Palit, a generous man. Raman was appointed Professor. He sacrificed the powerful post in the government, which brought a good salary. The Indian Science Congress was started in 1913. Its first session was held in 1914. Asuthosh Mukherjee was the President. Raman was the President of the Physics section. Later he worked for many years as the Secretary of the Science Congress. He presided over its annual sessions in 1929 and 1948. Professor Raman In 1917, at the age of 29, Raman became the Palit Professor. He continued research along with the new assignment. Raman was very deeply interested in musical instruments such as the Veena, the Violin, the Mridangam and the Tabala. He began to work on them. Around 1918 he explained the complex vibrations of the strings of musical instruments. He later found out the characteristic tones emitted by the Mridangam, the Tabala etc. Amritlal Sircar, who was devoting all his time to the welfare of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, passed away in 1919. Professor Raman became its Honarary Secretary. Two laboratories – those of the College and of the Association – were under him; and this gave a new stimulus to his researches. Both his body and his mind could do all the work that had to be done. Many students came to him from different parts of the country for post-graduate studies and research. 210, Bow Bazaar Street and the University Science College Laboratory – these became the active research centers of India. Research workers like Meghnad Saha and S. Mitra, who became famous later, worked at these centres. The Great Teacher That was a time when Raman was completely immersed in experiments and research. According to the terms of the Palit Chair, he could have remained free from teaching work, doing research only. But Raman had great pleasure in teaching. Students were inspired by his lectures. They were eager to listen to him. He would not stick to one particular textbook. His lectures brought the fragrance of fresh research. They reflected Raman’s great curiosity about the secrets of nature. Usually the lecture was of an hour’s duration. Forgetting the time in the discussion of the subject, Professor Raman would sometimes lecture for two or three hours. Any doubt or question from a student would stimulate new scientific ideas. Not a Minute to Waste Absorbed in experiments, it was not unusual for him to forget food and sleep. Sometimes working late at night, he would sleep in the laboratory on one of the tables. In the mornings too, most of his time was spent in the laboratory. He worked in informal clothes. At 9.30 a. He would rush home. After a shave and a bath he would dress up and send for a taxi. He Would finish his breakfast in two or three minutes and get into the taxi. Racing over a distance of four miles, he would reach the class on time. He never wasted time. I n England The Congress of the Universities of the British Empire met in 1921 in London. Raman went to England as the represen- tative of Calcutta University. This was his first visit abroad. Raman lectured in the’Physical Society’ of London. People came in large numbers to listen to him. He was introduced to J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford, the famous English Physicists. Paul’s Church in London. A whisper at one point of the church tower is heard clearly at another point. This effect, produced by the reflection of sound, aroused his curiosity. The Blue of the Sea Raman’s journey to England and back was by sea. The deep blue color of the Mediterranean Sea interested the scientist in him. Was the blue due to the reflection of the blue sky? If so, how could it appear in the absence of light? Even when big waves rolled over the surface, the blue remained. As he thought over the problem, it flashed to him that the blue color might be caused by the scatter- ing of the sun’s light by water molecules. He turned over this idea in his mind again and gains. Immediately after his return to Calcutta, he plunged into experiments. Within a month, he prepared a research paper and sent it to the Royal Society of London. Next year he published a lengthy article on the molecular scattering of light. Raman never held the wrong belief that research could be carried out only with foreign-made or very complicated equipment. No doubt, he imported some equipment. But he prepared much of the equipment he used with the help of his students. New Contacts Scientists of many countries appreciated the research papers of Raman and his colleagues. The Royal Society, the oldest and the most important science society of England, honored Raman in 1924 by electing his as its’Fellow’ (that is, a member). The annual session of’The British Association for the Cultivation of Science’ was held in the same year in Toronto (Canada). Raman inaugurated the seminar on the scattering of light. Millikan, the famous American Physicist, who also attended, was full of admiration for Raman. They became fast friends too. At the Mount Wilson Observatory in California U. A, a telescope of 100-inch width was in use. Those were the times when discoveries in the field of astronomy (study of stars and planets and their movements) filled people with wonder. Raman was always eager to learn new things. He spent a couple of days onMount Wilson. During the nights he viewed the Nebula bright or dark patch in the sky caused by distant stars or a cloud of gas or dust. Through the telescope and was thrilled. He went to Russia in 1925 to participate in the twohundredth anniversary of the’Russian Academy of Sciences’. The Guide Many scholars were working in the Calcutta laboratories to unlock the secrets of sound and light. To all of them Professor Raman was the’Guru’ and the leader. He had observed the blue color of the deep glaciers (mass of ice or snow) in the Alps mountain ranges. Taking the clue from this, some of the research workers studied some scattering of light in ice and quartz crystals. They also studied the scattering of light in liquids such as pure water and alcohol, as well as in vapors and gases. With a complete mental picture of the phenomenon, Raman would proceed to experiment systematically. After that he would write the research paper based on the results of the experiments and arrange for its early publication. Sometimes it would be late in the day by the time the final copy was prepared. Then he would enjoy a feast of Rasagulla with his students. He started’The Indian Journal of Physics’ in 1926 to make the prompt publication of research papers possible. Raman wanted the young men working with him to take up indepenent positions and to serve the nation. He felt that his laboratory was a centre of training for young talent, but not a permanent storehouse. Raman’s research on sound became famous allover the world. Handbuck der Physic’, a German Encyclopaedia of Physics, was published in 1927. Raman was the only foreign scientist invited to contribute an article to it. Raman Effect Sometimes a rainbow appears and delights our eyes. We see in it shades of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The white ray of the sun includes all these colors. When a beam of sunlight is passed through a glass prism a patch of these color- bands are seen. This is called the spectrum. The Spectro- meter is an apparatus used to study the spectrum. Spectral lines in it are characteristic of the light passing through the prism. A beam of light that causes a single spectral line is said to be monochromatic. When a beam of monochromatic light passes through a transparent substance (a substance which allows light to pass through it), the beam is scattered. Raman spent a long time in the study of the scattered light.. On February 28, 1928, he observed two low intensity spectral line corresponding to the incident mono- chromatic light. Years of his labor had borne fruit. It was clear that though the incident light was monochromatic, the scattered light due to it, was not monochromatic. Thus Raman’s experiments discovered a phenomenon which was lying hidden in nature. The 16th of March 1928 is a memorable day in the history f science. On that day a meeting was held under the joint auspices of the South Indian Science Association and the Science Club of Central College, Bangalore; Raman was the Chief Guest. He announced the new phenomenon discovered by him to the world. He also acknowledged wit h affection the assistance given by K. Krishnan and Venkateshwaran, who were his students. The phenomenon attracted the attention of research workers all over the world. It became famous as the’Raman Effect’. The spectral lines in the scattered light were known as’Raman Lines’. Is light wave-like or particle-like? This question has been discussed from time to time by scientists. The Raman Effect confirmed that light was made up of particles known as’photons’. It helped in the study of the molecular and crystal structures of different substances. World-Wide Interest in Raman Effect Investigations making use of the Raman Effect began in many countries. During the first twelve years after its discovery, about 1800 research papers were published on various aspects of it and about 2500 chemical compounds were studied. Raman Effect was highly praised as one of the greatest discoveries of the third decade of this century. After the’lasers’ (devices that produce intense beams of light, their name coming from the initial letters of’Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) came into use in the 1960′s, it became easier to get monochromatic light of very high intensity for experiments. This brought back scientific interest in Raman Effect, and the interest remains alive to this day. He World Honors Raman Raman received many honors from all over the world for his achievement. In 1928 the Science Society of Rome awarded the Matteucci Medal. In 1929 the British Government knighted him; thereafter Professor Raman came to be known as Professor Sir C.. The Royal Society of London awarded the Hughes Medal in 1930. Honorary doctorate degrees were awarded by the Universities of Freiburg (Germany), Glasgow(England), Paris (France), Bombay, Benaras, Dacca, Patna, Mysore and several others. The Nobel Prize, Too The highest award a scientist or a writer can get is the Nobel Prize. In 1930, the Swedish Academy of Sciences chose Raman to receive the Nobel Prize for Physics. No Indian and no Asian had received the Nobel Prize for Physics up to that time. At the ceremony for the award, Raman used alcohol to demonstrate the Raman Effect. Later in the evening alcoholic drinks were served at the dinner. But Raman did not touch them. He remained loyal to the Indian traditions. A Keen Eye However minute the results of an experiment, they could not escape the searching eyes of Raman. And his mind retained every detail of what he observed. An incident, which took place at Walter, the seat of Andhra University, may be mentioned. After the discovery of the Raman Effect, spectra of different substances were being studied there. On one of his visits there, Raman found the research workers puzzled at not getting the expected spectral lines. Raman examined the plate containing the spectrum and exclaimed with joy, There it is, you see! He immediately got a projector and made the weak spectral lines clearly visible on the white screen. In Bangalore He came to Bangalore as the Director of the Tata Institute (the Indian Institute of Science) in 1933. The Tata Institute soon became famous for the study of crystals. The diffraction of light (the very slight bending of light around corners) by ultrasonic waves (high frequency sound waves which we cannot hear) in a liquid was elegantly explained by Raman and Nagendranath. This became known as the’Raman-Nath Theory’. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman[2] (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India presently called as Tamil Nadu, who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. [3] In 1954, India honoured him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. [4][5] Contents 1 Early education 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Controversies 4.1 The Nobel Prize 4.2 Lattice dynamics 5 Achievements 6 Honours and awards 7 Archive of Raman Research Papers 8 Death 9 Posthumous recognition and contemporary references 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Early education Raman’s father initially taught in a school in Thiruvanaikaval, became a lecturer in mathematics and physics in Mrs. Narasimha Rao College, Visakhapatnam (then Vishakapatnam) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, and later joined Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai). [1][6] At an early age, Raman moved to the city of Visakhapatnam and studied at St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. Raman passed his matriculation examination at the age of 11 and he passed his F. Examination (equivalent to today’s Intermediate exam, PUCPDC and +2) with a scholarship at the age of 13. In 1902, Raman joined Presidency College in Madras where his father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics. [7] In 1904 he passed his Bachelor of Arts examination of University of Madras. He stood first and won the gold medal in physics. In 1907 he gained his Master of Sciences degree with the highest distinctions from University of Madras. [1] Career In the year 1917, Raman resigned from his government service after he was appointed the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. At the same time, he continued doing research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta, where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta. Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal On 28 February 1928, Raman led experiments at the IACS with collaborators, including K. Krishnan, on the scattering of light, when he discovered what now is called the Raman effect. [8] A detailed account of this period is reported in the biography by G. [5] It was instantly clear that this discovery was of huge value. It gave further proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman had a complicated professional relationship with K. Krishnan, who surprisingly did not share the award, but is mentioned prominently even in the Nobel lecture. [9] Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon, and Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929. Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was conferred a knighthood, and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities. Raman was confident of winning the Nobel Prize in Physics as well but was disappointed when the Nobel Prize went to Owen Richardson in 1928 and to Louis de Broglie in 1929. He was so confident of winning the prize in 1930 that he booked tickets in July, even though the awards were to be announced in November, and would scan each day’s newspaper for announcement of the prize, tossing it away if it did not carry the news. [10] He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect”. [11] He was the first Asian and first non-white to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him Rabindranath Tagore (also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Raman and Suri Bhagavantam discovered the quantum photon spin in 1932, which further confirmed the quantum nature of light. [12] Raman had association with the Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi; he attended the foundation ceremony of BHU[13] and delivered lectures on “Mathematics” and “Some new paths in physics” during the lecture series organised at BHU from 5 to 8 February 1916. [14] He also held the position of permanent visiting professor at BHU. [15] During his tenure at IISc, he recruited the talented electrical engineering student, G. Ramachandran, who later went on to become a distinguished X-ray crystallographer. Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam. [16] He was also interested in the properties of other musical instruments based on forced vibrations such as the violin. He also investigated the propagation of sound in whispering galleries. [17] Raman’s work on acoustics was an important prelude, both experimentally and conceptually, to his later work on optics and quantum mechanics. [18] Raman and his student, Nagendra Nath, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in the celebrated Raman-Nath theory. [19] Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have enabled optical communication components based on laser systems. Raman was succeeded by Debendra Mohan Bose as the Palit Professor in 1932. In 1933, Raman left IACS to join Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as its first Indian director. He also started the company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. (now known as TCM Limited) which manufactured potassium chlorate for the match industry[21] in 1943 along with Dr. The Company subsequently established four factories in Southern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India. [22] In 1948, Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behaviour of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behaviour of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite, pearly feldspar, agate, opal, and pearls). Among his other interests were the optics of colloids, electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision. Raman retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, a year later. He served as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82. [23] They had two sons, Chandrasekhar and radio-astronomer Radhakrishnan. Raman was the paternal uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1983) for his discovery of the Chandrasekhar limit in 1931 and for his subsequent work on the nuclear reactions necessary for stellar evolution. Controversies The Nobel Prize In the past, several questions were raised about Raman not sharing the Prize with the Russian scientists G. Mandelstam, who had observed the same effect in the case of crystals. According to the Physics Nobel Committee:(1) The Russians did not come to an independent interpretation of their discovery as they cited Raman’s article. (2) They observed the effect only in crystals, whereas Raman and K. Krishnan in solids, liquids and gases. With that, he proved the universal nature of the effect. (3) The uncertainties concerning the explanation of the intensity of Raman- and Infrared lines in the spectra could be explained during the last year. (4) The Raman method has been applied with great success in different fields of molecular physics. (5) The Raman effect has effectively helped to check the actual problems of the symmetry – properties of molecules thus the problems concerning the nuclear-spin in the atomic physics. The Nobel Committee proposed Raman’s name to the Swedish National Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, for the Nobel Prize for the year 1930. [24] Lattice dynamics At the end of the 1930s and the beginning of the 1940s, scientists observed diffuse spots in X-ray Laue photographs that were difficult to explain theoretically. Already at this stage, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman suggested a theory of his own and criticised alternative solutions that were largely based on thermal theories proposed by Max Born and Peter Debye. This led to a conflict between Born and Raman. In this dispute, Born received support from the British crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale. [25] The dispute between Raman and Born involved scientific as well as social elements. Whereas Raman’s support came mainly from his own experiments and from his colleagues in Bangalore, Born used his social and professional network to enlist scientists as allies for his cause. Although initially, in the early 1940s, Born’s theory was not generally accepted even in England, he eventually succeeded in marginalising the rival theory of Raman. The controversy has often been dealt with by physicists and historians of science, who, however, have too often relied on Born’s autobiographical work. As has been shown, parts of this work, especially as it relates to Born’s Indian visit and his contact with Raman, need careful and critical reading. In particular, the issue of Raman’s resignation from the directorship of the IIS had nothing to do with Born’s stay in India, such as indicated in his autobiography. [26] Up to some extent, this controversy led to the fact that Max Born had to wait for the Nobel Prize. [27] Achievements During a voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman noticed the blue colour of glaciers and the Mediterranean sea. He was motivated to discover the reason for the blue colour. Raman carried out experiments regarding the scattering of light by water and transparent blocks of ice which explained the phenomenon. Raman employed monochromatic light from a mercury arc lamp which penetrated transparent material and was allowed to fall on a spectrograph to record its spectrum. He detected lines in the spectrum which he later called Raman lines. He presented his theory at a meeting of scientists in Bangalore on 16 March 1928, and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In Munich the physicists were unable to reproduce Raman’s results. This led to scepticism. However, Peter Pringsheim was the first German to reproduce Raman’s results successfully. He sent spectra to Arnold Sommerfeld. Pringsheim was the first to coin the term “Raman effect” and Raman lines. [28] Honours and awards Bust of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum. Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. Knight Bachelor Nobel Prize in Physics Bharat Ratna – Highest civilian award of the Republic of India Lenin Peace Prize Fellow of the Royal Society He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society[2] early in his career (1924) and knighted in 1929. He resigned from the Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1968 for unrecorded reasons, the only Indian FRS ever to do so. [29] In 1930 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1941 he was awarded the Franklin Medal. In 1954 he was awarded the Bharat Ratna. [30] He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957. In 1998, the American Chemical Society and Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science recognised Raman’s discovery as an International Historic Chemical Landmark. [31] India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928. [32] Archive of Raman Research Papers The Raman Research Institute, founded by Raman after his tenure at IISc, curates a collection of Raman’s research papers, and articles on the web. [33] Death This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) At the end of October 1970, Raman collapsed in his laboratory, the valves of his heart had given way. He was moved to the hospital and the doctors gave him four days to live. He survived and after a few days refused to stay in the hospital as he preferred to die in the gardens of his Institute surrounded by his followers. Two days before Raman died, he told one of his former students, Do not allow the journals of the Academy to die, for they are the sensitive indicators of the quality of science being done in the country and whether science is taking root in it or not. That same evening, Raman met with the Board of Management of his Institute and discussed (from his bed) with them any proceedings with regards to the Institute’s management. Raman died from natural causes early next morning on 21 November 1970. Harry Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 – January 10, 1951) was an American writer and playwright. In 1930, he became the first writer from the United States (and the first from the Americas) to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, which was awarded for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters. His works are known for their critical views of American capitalism and materialism in the interwar period. [1] He is also respected for his strong characterizations of modern working women. Mencken wrote of him, [If] there was ever a novelist among us with an authentic call to the trade… It is this red-haired tornado from the Minnesota wilds. The Sinclair Lewis Boyhood Home museum. Born February 7, 1885, in the village of Sauk Centre, Minnesota, Lewis began reading books at a young age and kept a diary. He had two older siblings, Fred (born 1875) and Claude (born 1878). His father, Edwin J. Lewis, was a physician and a stern disciplinarian who had difficulty relating to his sensitive, unathletic third son. Lewis’s mother, Emma Kermott Lewis, died in 1891. The following year, Edwin Lewis married Isabel Warner, whose company young Lewis apparently enjoyed. Throughout his lonely boyhood, the ungainly Lewis-tall, extremely thin, stricken with acne and somewhat pop-eyed-had trouble making friends and pined after various local girls. At the age of 13, he unsuccessfully ran away from home, wanting to become a drummer boy in the Spanish-American War. [3] In late 1902, Lewis left home for a year at Oberlin Academy (the then-preparatory department of Oberlin College) to qualify for acceptance at Yale University. While at Oberlin, he developed a religious enthusiasm that waxed and waned for much of his remaining teenage years. He entered Yale in 1903, but did not receive his bachelor’s degree until 1908, having taken time off to work at Helicon Home Colony, Upton Sinclair’s cooperative-living colony in Englewood, New Jersey, and to travel to Panama. Lewis’s unprepossessing looks, “fresh” country manners and seemingly self-important loquacity made it difficult for him to win and keep friends at Oberlin and Yale. He did initiate a few relatively long-lived friendships among students and professors, some of whom recognized his promise as a writer. [4] Lewis later became an atheist. Lewis’s earliest published creative work-romantic poetry and short sketches-appeared in the Yale Courant and the Yale Literary Magazine, of which he became an editor. After graduation Lewis moved from job to job and from place to place in an effort to make ends meet, writing fiction for publication and to chase away boredom. Lewis’s first published book was Hike and the Aeroplane, a Tom Swift-style potboiler that appeared in 1912 under the pseudonym Tom Graham. Sinclair Lewis’s first serious novel, Our Mr. Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man, appeared in 1914, followed by The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life (1915) and The Job (1917). That same year also saw the publication of another potboiler, The Innocents: A Story for Lovers, an expanded version of a serial story that had originally appeared in Woman’s Home Companion. Free Air, another refurbished serial story, was published in 1919. Lewis with Thompson and son in 1935. Serving as a U. Army lieutenant during World War II, Wells Lewis was killed in action on October 29 amid Allied efforts to rescue the “Lost Battalion” in France. [6][7] Dean Acheson, the future Secretary of State, was a neighbor and family friend in Washington, and observed that Sinclair’s literary “success was not good for that marriage, or for either of the parties to it, or for Lewis’s work” and the family moved out of town. Lewis divorced Grace on April 16, 1925. [9] On May 14, 1928, he married Dorothy Thompson, a political newspaper columnist. Their marriage had virtually ended by 1937, and they divorced in 1942. Upon moving to Washington, D. Lewis devoted himself to writing. As early as 1916, he began taking notes for a realistic novel about small-town life. Work on that novel continued through mid-1920, when he completed Main Street, which was published on October 23, 1920. [12] His biographer Mark Schorer wrote that the phenomenal success of Main Street “was the most sensational event in twentieth-century American publishing history”. [13] Lewis’s agent had the most optimistic projection of sales at 25,000 copies. [15] According to biographer Richard Lingeman, “Main Street made [Lewis] rich-earning him about 4 million current [2018] dollars”. Sinclair Lewis’s former residence in Washington, D. Lewis followed up this first great success with Babbitt (1922), a novel that satirized the American commercial culture and boosterism. Lewis continued his success in the 1920s with Arrowsmith (1925), a novel about the challenges faced by an idealistic doctor. It was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, which Lewis declined, [17] still upset that Main Street had not won the prize. [18] It was adapted as a 1931 Hollywood film directed by John Ford and starring Ronald Colman which was nominated for four Academy Awards. Next Lewis published Elmer Gantry (1927), which depicted an evangelical minister as deeply hypocritical. The novel was denounced by many religious leaders and banned in some U. It was adapted for the screen more than a generation later as the basis of the 1960 movie starring Burt Lancaster, who earned a Best Actor Oscar for his performance in the title role. The film won two more awards as well. Lewis next published Dodsworth (1929), a novel about the most affluent and successful members of American society. He portrayed them as leading essentially pointless lives in spite of great wealth and advantages. The book was adapted for the Broadway stage in 1934 by Sidney Howard, who also wrote the screenplay for the 1936 film version directed by William Wyler, which was a great success at the time. The film is still highly regarded; in 1990, it was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry, and in 2005 Time magazine named it one of the “100 Best Movies” of the past 80 years. During the late 1920s and 1930s, Lewis wrote many short stories for a variety of magazines and publications. “Little Bear Bongo” (1930) is a tale about a bear cub who wants to escape the circus in search of a better life in the real world, first published in Cosmopolitan magazine. [20][21] The story was acquired by Walt Disney Pictures in 1940 for a possible feature film. World War II sidetracked those plans until 1947. Disney used the story (now titled “Bongo”) as part of its feature Fun and Fancy Free. In 1930 Lewis won the Nobel Prize in Literature, the first writer from the United States to receive the award, after he had been nominated by Henrik Schück, member of the Swedish Academy. [22] In the Academy’s presentation speech, special attention was paid to Babbitt. In his Nobel Lecture, Lewis praised Theodore Dreiser, Willa Cather, Ernest Hemingway, and other contemporaries, but also lamented that “in America most of us-not readers alone, but even writers-are still afraid of any literature which is not a glorification of everything American, a glorification of our faults as well as our virtues, ” and that America is the most contradictory, the most depressing, the most stirring, of any land in the world today. ” He also offered a profound criticism of the American literary establishment: “Our American professors like their literature clear and cold and pure and very dead. Sinclair Lewis examines Lewis Browne’s new novel as they begin their 1943 lecture tour. After winning the Nobel Prize, Lewis wrote eleven more novels, ten of which appeared in his lifetime. The best remembered is It Can’t Happen Here (1935), a novel about the election of a fascist to the American presidency. After praising Dreiser as “pioneering, ” that he “more than any other man, marching alone, usually unappreciated, often hated, has cleared the trail from Victorian and Howellsian timidity and gentility in American fiction to honesty and boldness and passion of life” in his Nobel Lecture in December 1930, [23] in March 1931 Lewis publicly accused Dreiser of plagiarizing a book by Dorothy Thompson, Lewis’s wife, which led to a well-publicized fight, wherein Dreiser repeatedly slapped Lewis. Thompson initially made the accusation in 1928 regarding her work “The New Russia” and Dreiser’s “Dreiser Goes to Russia”, though the New York Times also linked the dispute to competition between Dreiser and Lewis over the Nobel Prize. [24][25] Dreiser fired back that Sinclair’s 1928 novel Arrowsmith (adapted later that year as a feature film) was unoriginal and that Dreiser himself was first approached to write it, which was disputed by the wife of Arrowsmith’s subject, microbiologist Dr. [26][25] The feud carried on for some months. [27] In 1944, however, Lewis campaigned to have Dreiser recognized by the American Academy of Arts and Letters. After an alcoholic binge in 1937, Lewis checked in for treatment to the Austen Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. His doctors gave him a blunt assessment that he needed to decide whether he was going to live without alcohol or die by it, one or the other. “[28] Lewis checked out after ten days, lacking any “fundamental understanding of his problem, as one of his physicians wrote to a colleague. In the autumn of 1940, Lewis visited his old acquaintance, William Ellery Leonard, in Madison, Wisconsin. Leonard arranged a meeting with the chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a tour of the campus. Lewis immediately became enthralled with the university and the city and offered to remain and teach a course in creative writing in the upcoming semester. For a month he was quite enamored of his professorial role. [29] Suddenly, on November 7, after giving only five classes to his select group of 24 students, he announced that he had taught them all that he knew. He left Madison the next day. In the 1940s, Lewis and rabbi-turned-popular author Lewis Browne frequently appeared on the lecture platform together, [31] touring the United States and debating before audiences of as many as 3,000 people, addressing such questions as Has the Modern Woman Made Good? “, “The Country Versus the City”, “Is the Machine Age Wrecking Civilization? “, and “Can Fascism Happen Here? The pair were described as “the Gallagher and Shean of the lecture circuit” by Lewis biographer Richard Lingeman. In the early 1940s, Lewis lived in Duluth, Minnesota. [33] During this time, he wrote the novel Kingsblood Royal (1947), set in the fictional city of Grand Republic, Minnesota, an enlarged and updated version of Zenith. Kingsblood Royal was a powerful and very early contribution to the civil rights movement. In 1943, Lewis went to Hollywood to work on a script with Dore Schary, who had just resigned as executive head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s low-budget film department to concentrate on writing and producing his own films. The resulting screenplay was Storm In the West, “a traditional American western”[34] – except for the fact that it was also an allegory of World War II, with primary villain Hygatt (Hitler) and his henchmen Gribbles (Goebbels) and Gerrett (Goering) plotting to take over the Franson Ranch, the Poling Ranch, and so on. The screenplay was deemed too political by MGM studio executives and was shelved, and the film was never made. Storm In the West was finally published in 1963, with a foreword by Schary detailing the work’s origins, the authors’ creative process, and the screenplay’s ultimate fate. Sinclair Lewis had been a frequent visitor to Williamstown, Massachusetts. In 1946, he rented Thorvale Farm on Oblong Road. By 1948, Lewis had created a gentleman’s farm consisting of 720 acres (290 ha) of agricultural and forest land. His intended residence in Williamstown was short-lived because of his medical problems. Lewis died in Rome from advanced alcoholism on January 10, 1951, aged 65. His body was cremated and his remains were buried at Greenwood Cemetery in Sauk Centre, Minnesota. His final novel World So Wide (1951) was published posthumously. William Shirer, a friend and admirer of Lewis, disputes accounts that Lewis died of alcoholism. He reported that Lewis had a heart attack and that his doctors advised him to stop drinking if he wanted to live. Lewis did not stop, and perhaps could not; he died when his heart stopped. In summarizing Lewis’s career, Shirer concludes:[36]. It has become rather commonplace for so-called literary critics to write off Sinclair Lewis as a novelist. Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Dos Passos, and Faulkner… Yet his impact on modern American life… Was greater than all of the other four writers together. Compared to his contemporaries, Lewis’ reputation suffered a precipitous decline among literary scholars throughout the 20th century. [37] Despite his enormous popularity during the 1920s, by the 21st century most of his works had been eclipsed in prominence by other writers with less commercial success during the same time period, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. Since the 2010s there has been renewed interest in Lewis’ work, in particular his 1935 dystopian satire It Can’t Happen Here. He has been honored by the U. Sinclair Lewis in 1914. 1912: Hike and the Aeroplane (juvenile, as Tom Graham). Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man. 1915: The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life. 1917: The Job: An American Novel. 1917: The Innocents: A Story for Lovers. Serialized in The Saturday Evening Post, May 31, June 7, June 14 and 21, 1919. 1920: Main Street: The Story of Carol Kennicott. Excerpted in Hearst’s International, October 1922. Serialized in Collier’s, February 20, March 20 and April 24, 1926. 1928: The Man Who Knew Coolidge: Being the Soul of Lowell Schmaltz, Constructive and Nordic Citizen. Serialized in Redbook, August, November and December 1932. 1934: Work of Art. 1935: It Can’t Happen Here. 1938: The Prodigal Parents. 1945: Cass Timberlane: A Novel of Husbands and Wives. Appeared in Cosmopolitan, July 1945. 1951: World So Wide (posthumous). Babbitt, Mantrap and Cass Timberline were published as Armed Services Editions during WWII. 1907: “That Passage in Isaiah”, The Blue Mule, May 1907. 1907: “Art and the Woman”, The Gray Goose, June 1907. 1911: “The Way to Rome”, The Bellman, May 13, 1911. 1915: “The Other Side of the House”, The Saturday Evening Post, November 27, 1915. 1916: “If I Were Boss”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 1 and 8, 1916. 1916: “I’m a Stranger Here Myself”, The Smart Set, August 1916. 1916: “He Loved His Country”, Everybody’s Magazine, October 1916. 1916: “Honestly If Possible”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 14, 191. 1917: “Twenty-Four Hours in June”, The Saturday Evening Post, February 17, 1917. 1917: “The Innocents”, Woman’s Home Companion, March 1917. 1917: “A Story with a Happy Ending”, The Saturday Evening Post, March 17, 1917. 1917: “Hobohemia”, The Saturday Evening Post, April 7, 1917. 1917: “The Ghost Patrol”, The Red Book Magazine, June 1917. Adapted for the silent film The Ghost Patrol (1923). 1917: “Young Man Axelbrod”, The Century, June 1917. 1917: “A Woman by Candlelight”, The Saturday Evening Post, July 28, 1917. 1917: “The Whisperer”, The Saturday Evening Post, August 11, 1917. 1917: “The Hidden People”, Good Housekeeping, September 1917. 1917: “Joy-Joy”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 20, 1917. 1918: “A Rose for Little Eva”, McClure’s, February 1918. 1918: “Slip It to’Em”, Metropolitan Magazine, March 1918. 1918: “An Invitation to Tea”, Every Week, June 1, 1918. 1918: “The Shadowy Glass”, The Saturday Evening Post, June 22, 1918. 1918: “The Willow Walk”, The Saturday Evening Post, August 10, 1918. 1918: “Getting His Bit”, Metropolitan Magazine, September 1918. 1918: “The Swept Hearth”, The Saturday Evening Post, September 21, 1918. 1918: “Jazz”, Metropolitan Magazine, October 1918. 1918: “Gladvertising”, The Popular Magazine, October 7, 1918. 1919: “Moths in the Arc Light”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 11, 1919. 1919: “The Shrinking Violet”, The Saturday Evening Post, February 15, 1919. 1919: “Things”, The Saturday Evening Post, February 22, 1919. 1919: “The Cat of the Stars”, The Saturday Evening Post, April 19, 1919. 1919: “The Watcher Across the Road”, The Saturday Evening Post, May 24, 1919. 1919: “Speed”, The Red Book Magazine, June 1919. 1919: “The Shrimp-Colored Blouse”, The Red Book Magazine, August 1919. 1919: “The Enchanted Hour”, The Saturday Evening Post, August 9, 1919. 1919: “Danger – Run Slow”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 18 and 25, 1919. 1919: “Bronze Bars”, The Saturday Evening Post, December 13, 1919. 1920: “Habaes Corpus”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 24, 1920. 1920: “Way I See It”, The Saturday Evening Post, May 29, 1920. 1920: “The Good Sport”, The Saturday Evening Post, December 11, 1920. 1921: “A Matter of Business”, Harper’s, March 1921. 1921: “Number Seven to Sagapoose”, The American Magazine, May 1921. 1921: “The Post-Mortem Murder”, The Century, May 1921. 1923: “The Hack Driver”, The Nation, August 29, 1923[42]. 1929: “He Had a Brother”, Cosmopolitan, May 1929. 1929: “There Was a Prince”, Cosmopolitan, June 1929. 1929: “Elizabeth, Kitty and Jane”, Cosmopolitan, July 1929. 1929: “Dear Editor”, Cosmopolitan, August 1929. 1929: What a Man! 1929: “Keep Out of the Kitchen”, Cosmopolitan, October 1929. 1929: “A Letter from the Queen”, Cosmopolitan, December 1929. 1930: “Youth”, Cosmopolitan, February 1930. 1930: “Noble Experiment”, Cosmopolitan, August 1930. 1930: “Little Bear Bongo”, Cosmopolitan, September 1930. Adapted for the animated feature film Fun and Fancy Free (1947). 1930: “Go East, Young Man”, Cosmopolitan, December 1930. 1931: “Let’s Play King”, Cosmopolitan, January, February and March 1931. 1931: “Pajamas”, Redbook, April 1931. 1931: “Ring Around a Rosy”, The Saturday Evening Post, June 6, 1931. 1931: “City of Mercy”, Cosmopolitan, July 1931. 1931: “Land”, The Saturday Evening Post, September 12, 1931. 1931: “Dollar Chasers”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 17 and 24, 1931. 1935: “The Hippocratic Oath”, Cosmopolitan, June 1935. 1935: “Proper Gander”, The Saturday Evening Post, July 13, 1935. 1935: Onward, Sons of Ingersoll! , Scribner’s, August 1935. 1936: “From the Queen”, Argosy, February 1936. 1941: “The Man Who Cheated Time”, Good Housekeeping, March 1941. 1941: “Manhattan Madness”, The American Magazine, September 1941. 1941: They Had Magic Then! , Liberty, September 6, 1941. 1943: “All Wives Are Angels”, Cosmopolitan, February 1943. 1943: “Nobody to Write About”, Cosmopolitan, July 1943. 1943: “Green Eyes-A Handbook of Jealousy”, Cosmopolitan, September and October 1943. The first attempt to collect all of Lewis’s short stories. Volume 1 (June 1904 – January 1916) ISBN 9780773454873. Volume 2 (August 1916 – October 1917) ISBN 9780773454897. Volume 3 (January 1918 – February 1919) ISBN 9780773454910. Volume 4 (February 1919 – May 1921) ISBN 9780773454194. Volume 5 (August 1923 – April 1931) ISBN 9780773453562. Volume 6 (June 1931 – March 1941) ISBN 9780773453067. Volume 7 (September 1941 – May 1949) ISBN 9780773452763. , The Saturday Evening Post, October 2, 1915. 1917: “For the Zelda Bunch”, McClure’s, October 1917. 1918: “Spiritualist Vaudeville”, Metropolitan Magazine, February 1918. 1919: “Adventures in Autobumming: Gasoline Gypsies”, The Saturday Evening Post, December 20, 1919. 1919: Adventures in Autobumming: Want a Lift? , The Saturday Evening Post, December 27, 1919. 1920: “Adventures in Autobumming: The Great American Frying Pan”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 3, 1920. 1934: Jayhawker: A Play in Three Acts (with Lloyd Lewis). 1936: It Can’t Happen Here with John C. 1938: Angela Is Twenty-Two (with Fay Wray). Adapted for the feature film This Is the Life (1944). 1943: Storm In the West (with Dore Schary – unproduced)[34]. 1907: “The Ultra-Modern”, The Smart Set, July 1907. 1907: “Dim Hours of Dusk”, The Smart Set, August 1907. 1907: “Disillusion”, The Smart Set, December 1907. 1909: “Summer in Winter”, People’s Magazine, February 1909. 1912: “A Canticle of Great Lovers”, Ainslee’s Magazine, July 1912. 1942: Henry Ward Beecher: An American Portrait (by Paxton Hibben; publisher: The Press of the Readers Club, NY NY). 1915: Tennis As I Play It (ghostwritten for Maurice McLoughlin)[44]. 1926: John Dos Passos’ Manhattan Transfer. 1929: Cheap and Contented Labor: The Picture of a Southern Mill Town in 1929. 1935: Selected Short Stories of Sinclair Lewis. Maule and Melville Cane. 1962: I’m a Stranger Here Myself and Other Stories (edited by Mark Schorer). 1962: Sinclair Lewis: A Collection of Critical Essays (edited by Mark Schorer). 1985: Selected Letters of Sinclair Lewis edited by John J. Koblas and Dave Page. 1997: If I Were Boss: The Early Business Stories of Sinclair Lewis (edited by Anthony Di Renzo). 2000: Minnesota Diary, 1942-46 (edited by George Killough). 2005: Go East, Young Man: Sinclair Lewis on Class in America edited by Sally E. 2005: The Minnesota Stories of Sinclair Lewis edited by Sally E. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Framing: Unframed
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Type: Photograph
  • Subject: Celebrities & Musicians
  • Region of Origin: US
  • Size Type/Largest Dimension: Medium (Up to 10\
  • Time Period Manufactured: Vintage & Antique (Pre-1940)
  • Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  • Date of Creation: 1930
  • Signed?: Unsigned
  • Color: Black & White
  • Photo Type: Gelatin Silver
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print

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