PHOTOS OF CHINESE AMERICAN MILITARY MEN AND FAMILY MOST LIKELY FROM SAN RAMON HEIGHTS SINCE ONE OF THE PHOTOS INDICATES WHERE ONE OF THE CAR PHOTOS WAS TAKEN. 1 PHOTO OF UCSN MAN IN BLACK MILITARY CAP, 1 PHOTO UNITED STATES CORE OF CADETS WHITE HAT WITH FRIEND IN SUIT AND 2 FAMILY PHOTOS NEAR CAR. It has been estimated that between 12,000 and 20,000 Chinese-American men, representing up to 22 percent of the men in their portion of the U. Population, served during World War II.  Unlike Japanese and Filipino Americans, 75 percent served in non-segregated units.  Chinese Americans distinguished themselves from Japanese Americans, and suffered less discrimination. A quarter of those would serve in the U. Army Air Forces, some of them were sent to the Chinese-Burma-India theater for service with the 14th Air Service Group and the Chinese-American Composite Wing.  Another 70 percent would go on to serve in the U. Army in various units, including the 3rd, 4th, 6th, 32nd and 77th Infantry Divisions.  Prior to the war, the U. Navy had recruited Chinese Americans but they had been restricted to serve only as stewards; this continued until May 1942, when restrictions ceased and they were allowed to serve in other ratings.  In 1943, Chinese-American women were accepted into the Women’s Army Corps in the Military Intelligence Service.  They were also recruited for service in the Army Air Force, with a few later becoming civilian Women Airforce Service Pilots. Captain Francis Wai of the 34th Infantry was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for actions on the island of Leyte in late 1944; this awarding was later elevated to a Medal of Honor in the 2000 review.  Wilbur Carl Sze became the first Chinese-American officer commissioned in the Marine Corps. On May 4, 2017, Senators Tammy Duckworth, Thad Cochran and Mazie Hirono introduced S. 1050 Chinese-American World War II Veteran Congressional Gold Medal Act and Representatives Ed Royce and Ted Lieu introduced a companion bill H.  Efforts to pass the bill were led by the Chinese American WWII Veterans Recognition Project.  The bill was passed in the Senate on September 12, 2018,  and in the House on December 12, 2018.  President Donald Trump signed the bill, enacting it into law on December 20, 2018. By war’s end, over 13,000 were serving in all branches of the Army Ground Forces and Army Air Forces. About one quarter of all Chinese-American soldiers served with the Army Air Forces. In 1943 the Army Air Forces organized some support units for the China-Burma-India theater, including the 14th Air Service Group, composed predominantly of Chinese-American personnel. Other Chinese-Americans trained as pilots and aircrew and fought in Europe and the Pacific. However, most were assigned to regular ground units. An estimated 40 percent of Chinese-American soldiers were not native-born citizens. After Congress repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1943, many took advantage of their military service to become naturalized. One Chinese-American received the Distinguished Service Cross, Capt. He earned his commission through officers candidate school in 1941 and was assigned to the 34th Infantry, part of the 24th Infantry Division. On October 20, 1944, his unit landed at Leyte in the Philippines. He was killed in action while leading soldiers off the beach against accurate and concentrated enemy fire. During the height of World War II, U. Sailor Austin Wah helped sweep for naval mines on a converted destroyer in the waters off Okinawa, an island group that belongs to Japan. It was dangerous work. Once, Wah, now 94, sounded the alarm as a kamikaze pilot tried to kill him and his shipmates by directing his plane into their boat. Fortunately, the wing clipped the water first, flipping his aircraft into the sea. Wah is among the more than 18,000 Chinese Americans who served in World War II when the Chinese Exclusion Act still prohibited most Chinese immigrants from becoming naturalized citizens. IMAGE: Austin WahAustin Wah, pictured in 2019, is among the more than 18,000 Chinese American World War II veterans who were collectively awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. In 2018, they were collectively honored with a Congressional Gold Medal, joining other World War II vets like the Japanese American Nisei soldiers and Filipino and Filipino Americans who have already had their contributions recognized with the Congressional Gold Medal, one of the nation’s highest civilian honors. But Chinese Americans who served in World War II and their family members will have to wait a little longer for the medal to be formally unveiled. An award ceremony at the U. Capitol originally planned for late April has been postponed. A spokesperson for House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s office said organizers hope to reschedule the event for later this year. Ed Gor, national director of the Chinese American WWII Veterans Recognition Project, said the fewer than 300 service members still alive today are eager to see the medal presented. “Most of them came back to become professionals, businessmen, getting married, starting families, just contributing – I’d call it almost silently – into the fabric of the United States of America, ” Gor said. These guys had never been acknowledged for their service. Wah, who was born and raised in Baltimore, was 18 when he got his draft letter in 1943. Wah, one of eight children, was placed in the Navy because of a manpower shortage, he said. His brother ended up in the Army Air Forces. IMAGE: Austin Wah in 1944Austin Wah in his Navy uniform in January 1944 while on leave after having completed boot camp. Later, he was sent to Treasure Island, near San Francisco, for advanced welding. Wah said that while he was the only Chinese American in his group of mostly older men, he didn’t experience discrimination like others had. “They treated me like a younger brother, ” Wah said. Wah’s mettle was put to the test on the line of battle in the Pacific. “One minute you’re way down, you see water all around you, ” Wah recalled. Next thing, you’re way up top, you look down, and the water is all below. And then you see a lot of people floating by, because there’s no way you could rescue them. He never forgot the feeling he had when they passed by the Statue of Liberty. “It makes you proud that you did something, ” Wah said. It hits you just like that. New docuseries unpacks more than 150 years of Asian American history. Unlike Wah, Robert M. Lee began his journey into the U. Armed services in China, where he was born. Lee said his family had papers allowing them to immigrate to the U. Thanks to his mother’s relatives who had lived in the U. Around the time of the Gold Rush. But Japan’s attack on China in 1937 stalled their plans, forcing the family to flee to the city of Kunming. Unable to find work or go to school, Lee visited a nearby U. Air base to see whether he could enlist. He was around 14 at the time, and no one asked to see his birth certificate, even though he had one. With veto threat, Trump dares GOP to back Confederate generals or risk his wrath. “People laughed at me, but they were very helpful, ” Lee, 89, recalled. Lee enlisted as a private into the 14th Air Force of the U. Army Air Corps, formerly known as the Flying Tigers. The small company of air fighters had a reputation for their derring-do and ability to outmatch Japan’s much larger air force. Lee ended up with the Army Corps of Engineers. In 1945, he was transferred to work on Ledo Road, later renamed Stilwell Road, a strategic military route that ran from northeastern India through Myanmar to China. After his Army discharge following the war, Lee remained in India for seven years, helping to build hydroelectric dams. He also later joined the U. Lee said it was only a couple of years ago that he learned of efforts to award a Congressional Gold Medal to Chinese American World War II vets. “I was elated on my behalf, of course, but very disappointed that it was so late that many people would not live long enough to receive it, ” he said. Download the NBC News app for full coverage and alerts about the outbreak. Wah, who followed in his father’s footsteps by going into the laundry and dry-cleaning business, said serving his country was simply his duty. “I always just thought I was one of the guys, ” he said. How a Japanese-American physics teacher helped pioneer women’s boxing. Lee, who retired in the’90s from a computer center job with the Senate and today lives in Arlington, Virginia, went on to serve twice as president of the 14th Air Force Association before it disbanded in the late 2000s. Lee said he sees America’s battle to contain -as an even bigger challenge than what the nation and its allies faced during World War II. “I think this is much worse, because we don’t know what’s going to happen next, and we cannot fight it, ” he said. Both men participated in a smaller ceremony in Washington, D. Both were planning to attend the one in April, as well. Gor hopes the April event can take place this fall, especially because fewer than 300 servicemen and women remain of the more than 18,000 who answered the call to duty. “I’m never going to say that any one of our men and women who served were any more brave or courageous or patriotic next to anyone else who was African American or Hispanic or white, ” he said. “What we’d like everybody to know is we served alongside everyone else for the betterment of the country – and to win this war, ” Gor said. Chinese Americans are Americans who are descendants of Chinese, particularly Han Chinese ancestry, which also includes American-born Chinese persons. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and also a subgroup of East Asian Americans, which is a further subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans are immigrants along with their descendants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan,  as well as from other regions that include large populations of the Chinese diaspora, especially Southeast Asia and some Western countries like Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and France. The Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside Asia. It is also the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand and Malaysia. The 2016 Community Survey of the US Census estimates a population of Chinese Americans of one or more races to be 5,081,682.  The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010. Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.5% of the total U. Population as of 2017. According to the 2010 census, the Chinese American population numbered approximately 3.8 million.  In 2010, half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California and New York. Social status and assimilation. Main article: History of Chinese Americans. The first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820, according to U. 325 men are known to have arrived before the 1849 California Gold Rush,  which drew the first significant number of laborers from China who mined for gold and performed menial labor.  There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, and 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast. They formed over a tenth of California’s population. Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province. In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but also to take agricultural jobs, and factory work, especially in the garment industry. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the U. West, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the U. This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China through the Chinese Exclusion Act. The Chinese laborers worked out well and thousands more were recruited until the railroad’s completion in 1869. Chinese labor provided the massive workforce needed to build the majority of the Central Pacific’s difficult route through the Sierra Nevada mountains and across Nevada. By 1869, the ethnic Chinese population in the U. Numbered at least 100,000. Nativist objections to Chinese immigration to the U. Took many forms, and generally stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. At the same time, they also had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to North America. These financial pressures left them little choice but to work for whatever wages they could. Non-Chinese laborers often required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, and also generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages. Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, and tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke tobacco, or gamble. Some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, and expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition. To address these rising social tensions, from the 1850s through the 1870s the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization. Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the 1868 Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation. The Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, and New England.  Most came from Southern China looking for a better life to escape a high poverty as a result of the Taiping Rebellion. Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. Treaty agreements with China. Nevertheless, it was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese immigrants. Although Republicans were largely sympathetic to western concerns, they were committed to a platform of free immigration. In order to placate the western states without offending China, President Hayes sought a revision of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty (Burlingame Treaty) in which China agreed to limit immigration to the United States. In 1880, the Hayes Administration appointed U. Angell to negotiate a new treaty with China. The resulting Angell Treaty permitted the United States to restrict, but not completely prohibit, Chinese immigration. In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which, per the terms of the Angell Treaty, suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers (skilled or unskilled) for a period of 10 years. The Act also required every Chinese person traveling in or out of the country to carry a certificate identifying his or her status as a laborer, scholar, diplomat, or merchant. The 1882 Act was the first in American history to place broad restrictions on immigration. For American presidents and Congressmen addressing the question of Chinese exclusion, the challenge was to balance domestic attitudes and politics, which dictated an anti-Chinese policy, while maintaining good diplomatic relations with China, where exclusion would be seen as an affront and a violation of treaty promises. The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns. In 1888, Congress took exclusion even further and passed the Scott Act, which made reentry to the United States after a visit to China impossible, even for long-term legal residents. The Chinese Government considered this act a direct insult, but was unable to prevent its passage. Congress later extended the Exclusion Act indefinitely. Those that stayed in America faced the lack of suitable Chinese brides, because Chinese women were not allowed to immigrate to the US in significant numbers after 1872. As a result, many isolated mostly-bachelor communities slowly aged in place with very low Chinese birth rates. Later, as a result of the Fourteenth Amendment and the 1898 United States v. Wong Kim Ark Supreme Court decision, ethnic Chinese born in the United States became American citizens. The Chinese Exclusion Acts were not repealed until 1943, and then only in the interests of aiding the morale of a wartime ally during World War II. With relations already complicated by the Treaties of Wangxia and Tianjian, the increasingly harsh restrictions on Chinese immigration, combined with the rising discrimination against Chinese living in the United States in the 1870s-early 1900s, placed additional strain on the diplomatic relationship between the United States and China. In the mid 1850s, 70 to 150 Chinese were living in New York City and 11 of them married Irish women. In 1906, The New York Times (6 August) reported that 300 white women (Irish Americans) were married to Chinese men in New York, with many more cohabited. In 1900, based on Liang research, of the 120,000 men in more than 20 Chinese communities in the United States, he estimated that one out of every twenty Chinese men (Cantonese) was married to white women.  In the 1960s census showed 3500 Chinese men married to white women and 2900 Chinese women married to white men.  Originally at the start of the 20th century there was a 55% rate of Chinese men in New York engaging in interracial marriage which was maintained in the 1920s but in the 1930s it slid to 20%. During and after World War II, severe immigration restrictions were eased as the United States allied with China against Japanese expansionism. Later reforms in the 1960s placed increasing value on family unification, allowing relatives of U. Citizens to receive preference in immigration. The Chinese American experience has been documented at the Museum of Chinese in America in Manhattan’s Chinatown since 1980. Main article: List of U. Cities with significant Chinese American populations. See also: Demographics of the United States and list of common Chinese American surnames. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: “Chinese Americans” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). The chart on the right shows the total number of ethnic Chinese in the United States since 1850. Percentage of Chinese population in the United States, 2000. According to the 2012 Census estimates,  the three metropolitan areas with the largest Chinese American populations were the Greater New York Combined Statistical Area at 735,019 people, the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area at 629,243 people, and the Los Angeles Area Combined Statistical Area at about 566,968 people. New York City contains by far the highest ethnic Chinese population of any individual city outside Asia, estimated at 628,763 as of 2017.  The Los Angeles County city of Monterey Park has the highest percentage of Chinese Americans of any municipality, at 43.7% of its population, or 24,758 people. The states with the largest estimated Chinese American populations, according to both the 2010 Census, were California (1,253,100; 3.4%), New York (577,000; 3.0%), Texas (157,000; 0.6%), New Jersey (134,500; 1.5%), Massachusetts (123,000; 1.9%), Illinois (104,200; 0.8%), Washington (94,200; 1.4%), Pennsylvania (85,000; 0.7%), Maryland (69,400; 1.2%), Virginia (59,800; 0.7%), and Ohio (51,033; 0.5%). The New York metropolitan area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, and nearby areas within the states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Pennsylvania, is home to the largest Chinese American population of any metropolitan area within the United States and the largest Chinese population outside of China, enumerating an estimated 893,697 in 2017 and including at least 12 Chinatowns. Continuing significant immigration from Mainland China, both legal and illegal in origin, has spurred the ongoing rise of the Chinese American population in the New York metropolitan area; this immigration continues to be fueled by New York’s status as an alpha global city, its high population density, its extensive mass transit system, and the New York metropolitan area’s enormous economic marketplace. The Manhattan Chinatown contains the largest concentration of ethnic Chinese in the Western hemisphere; while the Flushing Chinatown in Queens has become the world’s largest Chinatown, but conversely, has also emerged as the epicenter of organized prostitution in the United States. Also on the East Coast, Greater Boston and the Philadelphia metropolitan area have significant Chinese American communities, with Chinatowns in Boston and Philadelphia hosting important and diverse cultural centers. Significant populations can also be found in the Washington metropolitan area, with Montgomery County, Maryland and Fairfax County, Virginia, being 3.9% and 2.4% Chinese American, respectively. Boston’s Chinatown is the only historical Chinese neighborhood within New England. The Boston suburb of Quincy also has a prominent Chinese American population, especially within the North Quincy area. San Francisco, California has the highest per capita concentration of Chinese Americans of any major city in the United States, at an estimated 21.4%, or 172,181 people, and contains the second-largest total number of Chinese Americans of any U. San Francisco’s Chinatown was established in the 1840s, making it the oldest Chinatown in North America and one of the largest neighborhoods of Chinese people outside of Asia,  composed in large part by immigrants hailing from Guangdong province and also many from Hong Kong. The San Francisco neighborhoods of Sunset District and Richmond District also contain significant Chinese populations. In addition to the big cities, smaller pockets of Chinese Americans are also dispersed in rural towns, often university-college towns, throughout the United States. For example, the number of Chinese Americans, including college professors, doctors, professionals, and students, has increased over 200% from 2005 to 2010 in Providence, Rhode Island, a small city with a large number of colleges. Income and social status of these Chinese-American locations vary widely. A third of a million Chinese Americans are not United States citizens.  Although many Chinese Americans in Chinatowns of large cities are often members of an impoverished working class, others are well-educated upper-class people living in affluent suburbs. The upper and lower-class Chinese are also widely separated by social status and class discrimination. In California’s San Gabriel Valley, for example, the cities of Monterey Park and San Marino are both Chinese American communities lying geographically close to each other but they are separated by a large socioeconomic gap. New York City is home to the largest Chinese American population of any city proper, over 600,000 as of 2017.  Multiple large Chinatowns in Manhattan, Brooklyn (above), and Queens are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, as large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York,  with the largest metropolitan Chinese population outside Asia,  comprising an estimated 893,697 uniracial individuals as of 2017. San Francisco is home to the second largest Chinese community in the United States in number and the largest in percentage. A list of large cities (250,000+ residents) with a Chinese-American population in excess of 1% of the general population in 2010. Some noteworthy historical Chinese contributions include building the western half of the Transcontinental Railroad, and levees in the Sacramento River Delta; the popularization of Chinese American food; and the introduction of Chinese and East Asian culture to America, such as Buddhism, Taoism, and Kung fu. Chinese immigrants to the United States brought many of their ideas and values with them. Some of these have continued to influence later generations. Among them are Confucian respect for elders.  Similarly, education and the civil service were the most important path for upward social mobility in China.  The first Broadway show about Asian Americans was Flower Drum Song which premiered on Broadway in 1958; the hit Chinglish premiered on Broadway in 2011. In most American cities with significant Chinese populations, the new year is celebrated with cultural festivals and other celebrations. In Seattle, the Chinese Culture and Arts Festival is held every year. Other important festivals include the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival. Main articles: Anti-Asian racism in the United States and Sinophobia. See also: List of incidents of xenophobia and racism related to the 2019-20 pandemic § North America. 17 to 20 Chinese immigrants were murdered during the Chinese massacre of 1871 in Los Angeles. An illustration of the Rock Springs massacre of 1885, in which at least 28 Chinese immigrants were killed. Analysis indicated that most non-Asian Americans do not differentiate between Chinese Americans and East Asian Americans generally, and perceptions of both groups are nearly identical.  A 2001 survey of Americans’ attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that one fourth of the respondents had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general.  The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as entrepreneurs (77%); high value on education (67%). Early Chinese Americans struggled to survive in the United States because of discrimination and stereotypes. In 1871, 17-20 Chinese immigrants were murdered in Los Angeles by a mob of around 500 men. This racially motivated massacre was one of the largest mass lynchings in United States, and took place after the accidental killing of Robert Thompson, a local rancher. The Rock Springs massacre occurred in 1885, in which at least 28 Chinese immigrants were killed and 15 were injured. Many enraged white miners in Sweetwater County felt threatened by the Chinese and blamed them for their unemployment. As a result of the job competition, white miners expressed their frustration in physical violence where they robbed, shot, and stabbed at Chinese in Chinatown. The Chinese quickly tried to flee but in doing so, many ended up burned alive in their homes, starved to death in hidden refuge, or exposed to animal predators of the mountains; some were successfully rescued by a passing train. A total of 78 homes were burned. During the Hells Canyon massacre in 1887, at least 34 Chinese miners were killed. An accurate account of the event is still unclear, but it is speculated that the dead Chinese miners were victims of gun shot wounds during a robbery committed by a gang of seven armed horse thieves. Other acts of violence against Chinese immigrants include the San Francisco riot of 1877, the Issaquah and Tacoma riot of 1885, the attack on Squak Valley Chinese laborers in 1885, the Seattle riot of 1886, and the Pacific Coast race riots of 1907. Main article: Chinese language and varieties in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the various varieties of Chinese, collectively referred to as just Chinese, is the third most-spoken language in the United States. It is almost completely spoken within Chinese American populations and by immigrants or the descendants of immigrants, especially in California.  Over 2 million Americans speak some variety or dialect of Chinese, with Standard Chinese (Mandarin) becoming increasingly common due to immigration from China and supplanting the previous widespread Cantonese and Taishanese. In New York City at least, although Standard Chinese (Mandarin) is spoken as a native language among only 10% of American born Chinese speakers, it is used as a secondary dialect to English.  In addition, the immigration from Fuzhou, Fujian brings in a significant populace of Fuzhou people (Eastern Min), particularly Changle dialect speakers to major cities like New York City, San Francisco, and Boston. People who comes from Fujian (Minnan region), Chaoshan, Taiwan and Southeast Asia mainly use Southern Min dialect (Hokkien and Teochew) as their mother tongue. Varieties of Wu Chinese, particularly Shanghainese and the mutually unintelligible Wenzhounese, are now spoken by a minority of recent Chinese immigrants hailing from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai. Although Chinese Americans grow up learning English, some teach their children Chinese for a variety of reasons: preservation of an ancient civilization, preservation of a group identity, preservation of their cultural ancestry, desire for easy communication with each other and their relatives, and the perception that Chinese is a very useful language, regardless of China’s economic strength. The official standard for United States public notices and signage is Traditional Chinese. Religions of Chinese Americans (2012). The Chinese American community is different from the rest of the population in that the majority of Chinese Americans do not report a religious affiliation. 43% of Chinese Americans switched to a different religion and 54% stayed within their childhood religion within their lifetime. According to the Pew Research Center’s 2012 Asian-American Survey, 52% of Chinese Americans aged 15 and over said that they did not have any religious affiliation. This is also compared with the religious affiliation of Asian American average of 26% and a national average of 19%. Of the survey respondents, 15% were Buddhist, 8% were Catholic, and 22% belonged to a Protestant denomination. Fully half of Chinese Americans (52%)-including 55% of those born in the U. And 51% of those born overseas-describe themselves as religiously unaffiliated. Because Chinese Americans are the largest subgroup of Asian Americans, nearly half of all religiously unaffiliated Asians in the U. Are of Chinese descent (49%). There are also many Chinese who identify as Jewish, mainly because of the higher marriage rates of Jews and Chinese.  Also, Judaism has similar habits as Confucianism,  such as the emphasis on scholarship, and Judaism’s lack of patriarchal system is the most important thing in Confucianism. This has also attracted many Chinese converts to conservative Judaism. Intermarriage between Jews and Chinese is a significant fraction of Jewish-Asian intermarriage in the U. And is a subject which has become a topic of academic research. There is a significantly higher percentage of Chinese Christians in the United States than there is in China, as a large amount of Chinese Christians fled and are still fleeing to the United States under Communist persecution.  Many Chinese fled to the United States in the mid-1900s, bringing with them the church organization format that had been brought to them by Western missionaries years before, with the structure almost perfectly preserved. Due to this, there is a large amount of Chinese churches in the United States that are much more similar to earlier Christian churches than American churches themselves, which have generally evolved into a more laid back and carefree environment to accommodate the younger generations. Chinese Americans are divided among many subgroups based on factors such as age, nativity, and socioeconomic status and politics between China and the United States, or about Chinese nationalism. Different subgroups of Chinese Americans also have radically different and sometimes very conflicting political priorities and goals. In 2013, Chinese Americans were the least likely Asian American ethnicity to be affiliated with a political party. Nonetheless, Chinese Americans are clustered in majority-Democratic states and have increasingly voted Democratic in recent presidential elections, following the trend for Asian Americans in general, excluding the Vietnamese Americans.  Polling just before the 2004 U. Presidential Election found John Kerry was favored by 58% of Chinese Americans and George W. Bush by only 23%,  as compared with a 54/44 split in California, a 58/40 split in New York, and a 48/51 split in America as a whole on Election Day itself. In the 2012 presidential election, 81% of Chinese American voters selected Barack Obama over Mitt Romney. During the Cultural Revolution, Chinese Americans, as overseas Chinese in general, were viewed as capitalist traitors by the PRC government. This attitude changed dramatically in the late 1970s with the reforms of Deng Xiaoping. Increasingly, Chinese Americans were seen as sources of business and technical expertise and capital who could aid in China’s economic and other development. Economic growth in the People’s Republic of China has given mainland Chinese more opportunities to emigrate. A 2011 survey showed that 60% of Chinese millionaires plan to emigrate, with 40% of Chinese millionaires selecting the United States as the top destination for immigration.  Under this program, applicants, together with their spouses and unmarried children under 21 years old will be eligible to apply for US permanent residency as a group. Because the EB-5 program allows applicants to apply as a family, it has been reported to be a significant method for Chinese students to obtain authorization to work in the United States. Chinese multimillionaires benefited most from the EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program in the U. Residency rights, but only in states specified by the pilot project. The history of illegal immigration of Chinese to the United States go back to the 19th century.  By 2017, it is estimated that more than a quarter million immigrants reside in the United States without authorization from China.  In 2015, there were about 39,000 Chinese nationals who were supposed to be deported; however, the People’s Republic of China government had not provided paperwork to verify their citizenship.  China has become one of the leading sources of new immigrants without authorization in the 21st century. Main article: Model minority. Overall, as a demographic group, Chinese Americans have a higher educational attainment, have a higher percentage of people working in select white collar and professional occupations, and earn higher median household incomes when compared to other demographic groups in the United States.  Educational achievements of Chinese in the United States are one of the highest among Asian Americans and also among all ethnic groups in the United States.  Chinese Americans often have some of the highest averages in tests such as SAT, ACT, GRE etc. In the United States. Although verbal scores lag somewhat due to the influx of new immigrants, combined SAT scores have also been higher than for most Americans.  With their above average SAT and ACT scores as well as GPA’s, Chinese Americans are more likely to apply to competitively elite higher education institutions. . International students studying at various higher education institutions around the United States account for a significant percentage of the international student body.  International undergraduates, who make up 38 percent of Purdue’s undergraduate body, come from China more than any other country.  International Chinese students make up 49.8 percent of all international students at the University of Southern California.  International Chinese students also comprise 60 percent of the 6039 international students enrolled at Ohio State University.  Mainland China is the top sending country of international students to the United States.  After the 1970s, the globalization and Chinese Reform and Opening-Up Act resulted in a growing economy, more middle-class families from China are able to afford American college tuition, bringing an influx of Chinese students to study abroad in the United States. With a more diverse educational background and higher level of English proficiency, international Chinese students also value American degrees, as it gives them a notable advantage over their college-educated counterparts in China by the time they return to their native country to seek employment. Due to cultural factors, many Chinese international students are brand name conscious, choosing nationally ranked elite higher education institutes throughout the United States as their target schools.  International Chinese students are also widely found at many elite liberal arts colleges such as Barnard College and Mount Holyoke College.  Students from China gravitate towards Americans colleges and universities for their high quality and the style of education which stresses interdisciplinary approaches, creativity, student participation and critical thinking. China is the leading country in sending international students to the U. S, which comprise 33.2% of the international student population.  Chinese students also make up 32.2% of the undergraduate students and 48.8% of the graduate students. Chinese international students tend to gravitate towards technical and scientific majors that involve heavy use of mathematics, engineering and the natural sciences. 27.5% of international Chinese students study business management, finance, or economics, 19.2% study engineering, 11.5% study the life sciences and 10.6% study math or computer science. Largely driven by educational immigration, among American PhD recipients in fields related to science and engineering, 25% of the recipients are ethnic Chinese. According to the 2017 U. Census Bureau of Labor Statistics, 55.3% of all Chinese Americans have attained at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with 32.0% nationally and 53.8% for all Asian American groups. The Census reports that 57.8% of Chinese American men attained a bachelor’s degree and 53.2% of Chinese American women attained a bachelor’s degree. In addition, 28.4% of all Chinese Americans in the United States possess a master’s, doctorate or other professional degree, compared to 23.6% for all Asian Americans, and is roughly two times above the national average of 12.3%. Bachelor’s Degree or Higher Educational Attainment. There has been a significant change in the perceptions about Chinese Americans. In as little as 100 years of American history, stereotypes of Chinese Americans have changed to portraying a hard working and educated minority. Thus, most Chinese Americans work as white collar professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in management, professional, and related occupations such as engineering, medicine, investment banking, law, and academia. 56.2% of Chinese Americans work in many white collar professions compared with 52.1% for all Asian Americans and a national average of 38.2%.  Chinese Americans also make up a third of the Asian American high tech professional workforce and a tenth of the entire Silicon Valley workforce.  Chinese Americans also hold lower unemployment rates than the population average with a figure of 4.7% compared to a national rate of 5.9% in 2010. Between 2008 and 2017, the number of Chinese-educated physicians practicing in the United States rose by 38.1%, and the total number of Chinese-educated physicians actively practicing in the United States was about 0.6% of the active physician workforce in 2017. Many Chinese Americans have turned to the high tech center to jump-start potential computer science and programming startups to capitalize on the region’s wealth of venture capital, business expertise, and cultural and financial incentives for innovation. Ethnic Chinese have been successful in starting new firms in technology centers across the United States, including California’s Silicon Valley. Chinese Americans have been disproportionately successful in high technology sectors, as evidenced by the Goldsea 100 Compilation of America’s Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs.  Chinese Americans accounted for 4% of people listed in the 1998 Forbes Hi Tech 100 List. Annalee Saxenian, a UC Berkeley professor, whose research interests include the contribution of Chinese immigrants on America’s technology concludes that in Silicon Valley, carried out a study that showed that since 1998, one out of five high tech start-ups in Silicon Valley were led by Chinese Americans. During the same year, 5 of the 8 fastest growing companies had Chinese American CEOs, except for Yahoo, whose Jerry Yang was a founder but not a CEO. In Silicon Valley there are at least 2 to 3 dozen Chinese American organizations according to professional interests each with at least 100 members, one prominent organization of which is the Committee of 100.  Immigrants from mainland China and Taiwan were key founders in 12.8% of all Silicon Valley start-ups between 1995 and 2005.  Almost 6% of the immigrants who founded companies in the innovation/manufacturing-related services field are from China. Moreover, the pace of entrepreneurship among local immigrants is increasing rapidly. While Chinese or Indian executives are at the helm of 13% of the Silicon Valley technology businesses started between 1980 and 1985, they are running 27% of the more than 4,000 businesses started between 1991 and 1996.  Start-up firms remain a primary source for new ideas and innovation for Chinese American internet entrepreneurs. Many of them are employed or directly engaged in new start-up activities.  By 2006, Chinese American internet entrepreneurs continued to start 20% of all Silicon Valley start-up firms, leading 2000 Silicon Valley companies, and employing 58,000 workers.  They still continue to own about 20% of all information technology companies that were founded in Silicon Valley since 1980. Numerous professional organizations in perspective in the 1990s as a support network for fellow Chinese American high tech start-ups in the valley.  Between 1980 and 1999, 17% of the 11,443 high-tech firms in Silicon Valley – including some 40 publicly traded firms were controlled by ethnic Chinese. In 1990, Chinese Americans made up a third of the Asian American high tech professional workforce or 11% of the entire Silicon Valley professional workforce. In 1998, Chinese Americans managed 2001 firms, employing 41,684 workers, and ran up 13.2 billion in sales. They also account for 17% of all Silicon Valley firm owners, 10% of the professional workforce in the Valley, and 13.5% of the total sales accounting for less than 1% of the U. Population at the time. Chinese Americans are also noted for their high rates of self-employment, as they have an extensive history of self-employment dating back to the California Gold Rush in the 1880s.  However, as more Chinese Americans seek higher education to elevate themselves socioeconomically, rates of self-employment are generally lower than population average. Firms, 40% were in the professional, scientific, and technical services sector, the accommodation and food services sector, and the repair, maintenance, personal, and laundry services sector. Firms comprised 2% of all U. Businesses in these sectors. Wholesale trade and accommodation and food services accounted for 50.4% of Chinese-owned business revenue. . With their above average educational attainment rates, Chinese Americans from all socioeconomic backgrounds have achieved significant advances in their educational levels, income, life expectancy, and other social indicators as the financial and socioeconomic opportunities offered by the United States have lifted many Chinese Americans out of poverty, bringing them into the ranks of America’s middle class, upper middle class, as well as the enjoyment of substantial well being. Chinese Americans are more likely to own homes than the general American population. According to the 2000 U. Census, 65% of Chinese Americans owned a home, higher than the total population’s rate of 54%.  In 2003, real estate economist Gary Painter of the University of Southern California Lusk Center for Real Estate Research found out that when comparing homeowners with similar income levels Los Angeles, the Chinese-American home-ownership rate is 20% higher than Whites; in San Francisco, 23% higher; and in the New York metropolitan area, 18% higher.  A 2008 Asian Real Estate Association of America report released on behalf of the American community survey, Chinese Americans living in the states of Texas, New York, and California all had high home ownership rates that were significantly near or above the general population average. Chinese Americans also have one of the highest median household incomes among most demographic groups in the United States, which is almost 30% higher than the national average but is slightly lower compared with the Asian American population. Median household income: 2017. Despite positive economic indicators, a number of economic deterrents have been noted to afflict the Chinese American community. While median income remains above some ethnic groups in the United States, studies in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis revealed that Asian men have the highest rate of persistent long-term unemployment.  In addition, studies have shown that Asian Americans have been discriminated in companies with lower pay grades; even in larger corporate settings such as Google. While the vast majority of Chinese Americans are of the Han ethnicity, there are also some ethnic minorities in China who have immigrated to the United States directly from the People’s Republic of China. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens.  There are some Zhuang people, the largest ethnic minority of China, in the United States.  The presence of Miao Uyghur and Manchu Americans has also been attested. Although considered ethnically the same as other Han Chinese, the Muslim Hui people are registered as an ethnic minority by the Chinese government. There are some Hui in the United States, and some have retained their religious and cultural practices in America. [failed verification] There are some restaurants serving Hui cuisine such as Ma’s Restaurant??? In the San Francisco area. A research on the whole genome patterns of common DNA variation in different human populations (African-American, Asian-American and European American) finds some common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these three populations with diverse ancestry.  In the samples of Han Chinese in America, 74% of the total SNPs have two alleles, and majority of the segregating SNPs have a minor allele frequency (MAF) greater than 10%. Another noticeable point is that MAFs show similar distributions in European-American and Han Chinese populations. Besides, rarer haplotype is found to be absent in the samples of Han Chinese, and they also possess a high level of redundancy. A study analyzing East Asian Genetic Substructure using genome-wide SNP arrays is carried out with greater than 200,000 genotypes from people of East Asian ancestry.  The continental populations are from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut), HapMap (Han Chinese and Japanese), as well as East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. A clear understanding of the genetic substructure of any population helps in the studies of complex diseases, as well as the design and execution of association tests. Results of this study have identified markers that can not only reduce type 1 errors in future genetic disease studies, but also identify homogeneous groups and hence make this study more powerful. The group of Chinese American in the same study consists of subjects with origins from North China, South China and Taiwan. This group is paired with Han Chinese from Beijing, and results indicate that the population differentiation values was small. Another study aiming to estimate cardiometabolic risk profile of Chinese adults with diabetes is also useful to reveal the personal genomics of Chinese Americans.  In this study, all subjects are over 18 years old and non-institutionalized. Results derived from a complex, multistage, probability sampling design show that 12,607 out of 98,658 Chinese adults are suffering from diabetes, based on the criteria of 2010 American Diabetes Association. In addition, the study reaches a conclusion that for those Chinese adults defined with diabetes, cardiometabolic risk factors are highly prevalent, including metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure that is higher than 140mmHg, low fruit and vegetable intake, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that is higher than 110 mg/dL. The circumstance of Asian American population is informative in a way that some knowledge about Chinese American can be inferred from it. The statistics of diabetes in Asian American population reveals that approximately 10% of the entire population are diabetic, and in which 90-95% are type 2 diabetes.  The current situation is that there are some challenges in diagnosing diabetes in many Asian Americans. The main obstacle is that many clinical features along with risks factors associated with diabetes are obtained from studies that focus on Caucasian populations, which might result in misdiagnoses between type 1 and type 2 diabetes for Asian Americans. In fact, the reason why classic features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in America might not apply to Asian American population is about shared absence of common HLA DR-DQ genotype, low prevalence of positive anti-islet antibodies and low BMI in both types of diabetes. Some other studies have pointed out that for people of Asian descent and without diabetes, their insulin resistance levels are higher than non-diabetic people of Caucasian descent. Thus, Asian Americans are relatively more predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes. This suggests that insulin resistance, rather than body mass index (BMI) should be targeted while making diagnoses. A potential biomarker to identify diabetes in young Asian American population is adipocyte fatty acid binding protein that has a strong association with insulin resistance but is independent of adiposity. Nevertheless, more research studies should be carried out in order to confirm such finding. With further applying the above outcome on the population of Chinese Americans, it is rational that there is a higher tendency for type 2 diabetes among this group of people, who also face the challenge of correct diagnosis in America. Genetic mental illness is stigmatized in China. A study compares the attitude of Chinese American towards mental illness with genetic causes and that of European American. It finds out that there is a perception of eugenics existing among Chinese Americans.  Consequently, in order to reduce the stigma in the society, more efforts should be devoted to this population. The journal launched by the above study highlights the idea of genetic essentialism, namely, genes are largely deterministic of individual characteristics and behavior. There is a separation between the normal and the deviant, which drives the process of stigma labeling. On the other hand, since genetic diseases can be passed on from one generation to another, some mental illnesses are shared in a family, stigmatizing all members involved. Another viewpoint relevant to genetic essentialism is that, since genes are perceived by the common people as difficult to modify, genetic mental illness is likely to persist, and so is the stigma. As a result, the mindset of many Chinese Americans is formulated as diseases with genetic causes being more serious than those without. The same journal also delivers some hypotheses made on the basis of the long history of eugenics in China. First, Chinese Americans are more in favor of eugenic policies than European Americans. Secondly, more stigma would be generated towards genetic attributions of any diseases in Chinese American population. China used to implement restrictions on marriage licenses to people with genetic illnesses, which has made the attitude of Chinese American towards premarital genetic screening more supportive, especially when facing a chance of genetic defects. Moreover, from the perspective of this group of people, knowing whether a marriage partner has family history of mental illness with genetic basis is fairly important. Main article: List of Chinese Americans. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Tsung-Dao Lee, physist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1957) with Yang Chen-Ning for their work on the violation of the parity law in weak interactions. Andrew Yang, entrepreneur, politician, lawyer, and 2020 Democratic presidential candidate. Iris Chang (28 March 1968 – 9 November 2004), a historian, her publishings included: Thread of the Silkworm (basic books 1995), The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten Holocaust of World War Two (published in 1997). Eric Yuan, billionaire businessman and founder of Zoom Video Communications. Shiing-Shen Chern, Wolf Prize winner, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century. Steven Chu, Nobel prize winner in physics, 1997 and former United States Secretary of Energy. Terence Tao, child prodigy, won Fields medal, 2006. Tang, inventor of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and the hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV); winner of the 2011 Wolf Prize in Chemistry. Tsien, Nobel prize winner in chemistry, 2009. Bruce Lee, famed actor, director and martial artist. History of Chinese Americans. China City of America. Chinese Americans in New York City. Chinese Americans in Boston. Embassy of China in Washington, D. San Ramon (Spanish: San Ramón; Spanish for’”Saint Raymond”‘) is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States, located 34 miles east of San Francisco, and within the San Ramon Valley. San Ramon’s population was estimated as 75,995 in 2019 by the US Census Bureau,  making it the 4th largest city in Contra Costa County, behind Richmond, Concord and Antioch. San Ramon is home to the headquarters of Chevron Corporation, 24 Hour Fitness, the West Coast headquarters of AT&T, the Global Software Center of General Electric, as well as the San Ramon Medical Center. Major annual events include the Art and Wind Festival on Memorial Day weekend and the Run for Education in October. On April 24, 2001, San Ramon was designated a Tree City USA. A view of Mount Diablo from San Ramon. San Ramon is adjacent to Danville, California, to the north and Dublin, California, to the south. Unincorporated county lands border San Ramon to the east and west. It is located around 500 feet (150 m) above sea level. Mount Diablo flanks the city to the northeast and is prominently visible from almost all parts of the city. The Las Trampas Regional Wilderness borders San Ramon’s extreme northwest, at the northern end of Bollinger Canyon. The smaller Bishop Ranch Regional Preserve straddles San Ramon’s western border, located approximately between Interstate 680 and the Alameda County line. The topography of San Ramon is varied, featuring a mix of the rolling hills of the Diablo Range and the flatter basin of the San Ramon Valley. The city is predominantly urban and residential with many new housing developments, however much of the land around the city’s perimeter regions remains undeveloped, and is covered by grasslands and oak tree orchards. During the drier months the grasses are golden, but with the precipitation of winter and spring, the grasses turn green. San Ramon’s weather typifies a Mediterranean climate, seasonal, and moderate. Summers are warm to hot and dry, while winters are mild or cool, wet and rather short. Its weather is similar to the adjacent cities of Danville, Dublin and Pleasanton. Fog can be infrequent but occurs normally in the western reaches of the city, at the eastern mouth of Crow Canyon, through which marine weather patterns funnel in from the San Francisco Bay via Castro Valley. It usually burns off by mid-to-late morning. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 58 °F (14 °C) and a minimum of 36 °F (2 °C). Average July temperatures are a maximum of 83 °F (28 °C) and a minimum of 56 °F (13 °C). January is normally the wettest month, averaging 5.20 inches (132 mm) of precipitation and followed by March, is the second wettest month averaging 4.15 inches (105 mm) of precipitation. July is usually the driest month, with an average of only 0.06 inches (1.5 mm) of precipitation. Snow is extremely rare except for Mount Diablo, but hail occurs a few times in the winter. Climate data for San Ramon, California. Record high °F (°C). Average high °F (°C). Average low °F (°C). Record low °F (°C). Average precipitation inches (mm). Source 1: The Weather Channel . Source 2: MSN Weather . The lands now occupied by the City of San Ramon were formerly inhabited by Seunen people, an Ohlone/Costanoan group who built their homes near creeks. Sometime around 1797 they were taken by Mission San José for use as grazing land. In 1834, they were part of the Rancho San Ramon land grant to José María Amador. Amador named San Ramón (Spanish for’”Saint Ramon”‘) not after a real saint but rather after a Native American vaquero who tended mission sheep on the land. Amador added the “San” per Spanish custom. In 1964, Pacific Air Lines Flight 773 crashed near San Ramon after both pilots were shot by a passenger. This article needs additional citations for verification. Find sources: “San Ramon, California” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). The 2010 United States Census reported that San Ramon had a population of 72,148. The population density was 3,991.1 people per square mile (1,541.0/km2). The racial makeup of San Ramon was 38,639 (53.6%) White, 2,043 (2.8%) African American, 205 (0.3%) Native American, 25,713 (35.6%) Asian, 156 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 1,536 (2.1%) from other races, and 3,856 (5.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,250 persons (8.7%). The Census reported that 72,073 people (99.9% of the population) lived in households, 52 (0.1%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 23 (0%) were institutionalized. There were 25,284 households, out of which 11,988 (47.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 16,318 (64.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,997 (7.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 850 (3.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,067 (4.2%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 187 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 4,682 households (18.5%) were made up of individuals, and 1,105 (4.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85. There were 19,165 families (75.8% of all households); the average family size was 3.30. The population was spread out, with 21,351 people (29.6%) under the age of 18, 3,557 people (4.9%) aged 18 to 24, 22,798 people (31.6%) aged 25 to 44, 18,815 people (26.1%) aged 45 to 64, and 5,627 people (7.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. There were 26,222 housing units at an average density of 1,450.6 per square mile (560.1/km2), of which 25,284 were occupied and 18,056 (71.4%) of them were owner-occupied, and 7,228 (28.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.0%. 54,705 people (75.8% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 17,368 people (24.1%) lived in rental housing units. About 2.0% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. Demographic profile. 72,148 – 100.0%. 68,292 – 94.7%. Not Hispanic or Latino. 65,898 – 91.3%. 34,956 – 48.5%. Black or African American alone. 1,946 – 2.7%. 128 – 0.2%. 25,531 – 35.4%. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone. 141 – 0.2%. Some other race alone. 146 – 0.2%. Two or more races alone. 3,050 – 4.2%. Hispanic or Latino (of any race). 6,250 – 8.7%. As of the census of 2000, there were 44,722 people, 16,944 households, and 12,148 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,491.1/km2 (3,862.0/mi2). There were 17,552 housing units at an average density of 585.2/km2 (1,515.7/mi2). The racial makeup of the city was 36.82% White, 1.93% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 50.94% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 2.16% from other races, and 3.58% from two or more races. 7.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,944 households, out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.3% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 3.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was spread out, with 26.3% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 35.7% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males. About 1.4% of families and 2.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.4% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. San Ramon is governed by a four-body City Council composed of individuals elected to four-year overlapping terms in coordination with a two-year elected mayor. Police services were provided under contract by the Contra Costa County Sheriff’s Department until July 1, 2007, when the city officially took over providing police services. As of 2020, the elected representatives are Bill Clarkson (Mayor), Sabina Zafar (Vice Mayor), Scott Perkins, Phil O’Loane and David Hudson (Council members). The city of San Ramon is in Contra Costa County. In the United States House of Representatives, the city is split between California’s 11th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mark DeSaulnier and California’s 15th congressional district, represented by Democrat Eric Swalwell. According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, San Ramon has 41,872 registered voters. Of those, 16,518 (39.4%) are registered Democrats, 8,907 (21.3%) are registered Republicans, and 12,147 (29%) have declined to state a political party. By party in presidential elections . 66.92% 21,134. 27.68% 8,741. 5.41% 1,708. 60.08% 17,410. 38.06% 11,028. 62.31% 18,517. 36.24% 10,768. 53.05% 12,872. 46.04% 11,172. 48.25% 9,384. 48.98% 9,525. 45.05% 8,141. 46.20% 8,349. 8.76% 1,583. 36.11% 6,569. 39.89% 7,256. 24.00% 4,366. 34.50% 4,957. 64.64% 9,288. 26.57% 2,816. 72.73% 7,709. The sign marking the Chevron Corporation headquarters. The headquarters of 24-Hour Fitness. Bishop Ranch is situated on 585 acres once owned by Western Electric, and was farmland before that. Current tenants include the corporate headquarters of Chevron Corporation (formerly ChevronTexaco), as well the West Coast headquarters of AT&T Inc. (which had been the headquarters of Pacific Bell from about 1983, when it relocated from downtown San Francisco, until the merger with SBC Communications that created the current AT&T). United Parcel Service has a regional distribution center in Bishop Ranch. Toyota  has a regional office and parts distribution center located there. GE Global Research started its Global Software Center in Bishop Ranch in 2011. Bishop Ranch covers the vast majority of “Central San Ramon”, which is the large square formed by Freeway 680 on the west, Crow Canyon Road on the north, Iron Horse trail on the east, and Bollinger Canyon Road on the south (though several complexes are south of Bollinger). In December 2016, the Ligier EZ-10 began use in the first autonomous vehicle passenger shuttle route in North America, looping through Bishop Ranch Office Park, with on-sight operation and maintenance by First Transit. ChevronTexaco’s headquarters moved from San Francisco to San Ramon in 2001  but 12 years later, 800 jobs were moved to Houston, a quarter of the San Ramon workforce due to high corporate costs and to consolidate existing units in Houston. According to the City’s 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,  the top employers in the city are. % of Total City Employment. Bank of the West. Pacific Gas & Electric. San Ramon Regional Medical Center. In 2014, the city approved the project’s design that called for an animated civic space featuring 350,000 square feet of quality shops, restaurants and a multi-screen movie theater. The city center was designed by the award-winning international architectural firm Renzo Piano Building Workshop. The grand opening was on November 8, 2018 which featured The Lot Luxury Theater, West Elm, Boba Guys, Fieldwork Brewing Company, On the EDGE, Pottery Barn, Starbucks, the piece. Store, and Williams Sonoma. Throughout 2019 more stores, restaurants, and an Equinox gym are slated to open. San Ramon’s public schools are part of the San Ramon Valley Unified School District (SRVUSD), serving approximately 30,300 students. The city has 11 elementary schools and 4 middle schools. The high schools are California and Dougherty Valley High School. An alternative K-12 school is operated by the SRVUSD to support home-schooled students: Venture Independent Study School. California High School was founded in 1973 and ranked 250th best high school in the United States by Newsweek.  Dougherty Valley High School is ranked 42nd within California; it is ranked No. 281 in the national rankings and earned a gold medal. Diablo Valley College – San Ramon branch campus. University of San Francisco – San Ramon regional campus. UC Davis Graduate School of Management – the Bay Area working professional program. The San Ramon Library and Dougherty Station Library branches of the Contra Costa County Library and Ramona Library are in San Ramon. Aerial View of Memorial Park, including play area, ball field and BMX track. Originally, this city park, located on a hill overlooking Bollinger Canyon Road and San Ramon Valley Blvd. Was to be named Alta Mesa Park.  During the construction of the park, the City Council voted to change the name to Memorial Park to honor Tom Burnett, a San Ramon resident, and other victims from Flight 93 killed in the September 11 attacks of 2001. A plaque was installed at the base of a lighted flagpole dedicated to those victims and the surrounding meadow is part of the city’s memorial tree program dedicated to local residents who have perished. The park was dedicated on September 11, 2002. This 16-acre park includes a play area, a BMX course, a picnic area, a bocce ball court, horseshoe courts, a ball field, a dog park, rest rooms and water fountains (including a doggy water fountain). The play area has two big play structures, one for ages 2-5 and another for ages 5-12. David Glass House at Forest Home Farms. Museums and historic sites. Forest Home Farms, National Register of Historic Places. Bollinger Canyon School Park. Country Club School Park. Coyote Creek School Park. Golden View School Park. Hidden Hills School Park. Neil Armstrong School Park. Pine Valley School Park. Rancho San Ramon Community Park. San Ramon Central Park. Walt Disney School Park. Local bus service in the San Ramon Valley is provided primarily by County Connection (Central Contra Costa Transit Authority, or CCCTA). Ride-sharing services such as Uber and Lyft are also accessible within San Ramon. The major freeway in the area is Interstate 680. Mark Appel, professional baseball pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies. David Bingham, MLS player for San Jose Earthquakes. Tom Burnett, passenger on United Airlines Flight 93. Colby Buzzell, author, blogger and former United States Army soldier. Andrew Champion, vocalist for Screw 32, Hopelifter, End Of The World, Shadowboxer, Highwire Days, Dance Hall Crashers and Curse The Cannons. Justin Eugene Evans, film director, cinematographer, screenwriter, producer, visual effects supervisor, inventor and college instructor. Austin Hooper, professional football player. Houston, Former mayor of Dublin and member of the California State Assembly. Marv Hubbard, retired professional American football player. Scott Ivie, American racecar driver. James Jones, professional football player. Khalil Mack, professional football player. Auston Matthews, NHL player for the Toronto Maple Leafs, first overall pick in the 2016 NHL draft. Dennis Richmond, former news anchor for KTVU. Tony Stewart, former professional American football player. Maggie Steffens, gold medal winning water polo player. Watson, former CEO of Chevron. Andrew Wiedeman, former professional soccer player . Barbara Willis, American ceramic artist. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
- Framing: Unframed
- Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
- Size Type/Largest Dimension: Small (Up to 7\
- Color: Black & White
- Original/Reprint: Original Print
- Antique: No
- Type: Photograph