A vintage photo from 1948 measuring 7 X 8 inches of. Abdullah I bin Al-Hussein. Abd Allah Al-Awal ibn Al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951 reigned as Emir of Transjordan from 21 April 1921, and as King of Jordan from 25 May 1946, until his assassination. According to Abdullah, he was a 38th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belongs to the Hashemite family. Born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, Abdullah was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah. He was educated in Istanbul and Hejaz. From 1909 to 1914, Abdullah sat in the Ottoman legislature, as deputy for Mecca, but allied with Britain during World War I. Between 1916 and 1918, he played a key role as architect and planner of the Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule that was led by his father Sharif Hussein. Abdullah personally lead guerrilla raids on garrisons. Abdullah became emir to the Emirate of Transjordan in April 1921, which he established by his own initiative, and became king to its successor state, Jordan, after it gained its independence in 1948. Abdullah ruled until 1951 when he was assassinated in Jerusalem while attending Friday prayers at the entrance of the Al-Aqsa mosque by a Palestinian who feared that the King was going to make peace with Israel.  He was succeeded by his son Talal. King Abdullah of Jordan was assassinated at the entrance to the El Aqsa Mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem. His assailant, who was shot dead by the bodyguard, was an Arab who had been a member of a military force associated with the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem. Assassin a follower of the ex-Mufti. King Abdullah of Jordan was assassinated by an Arab yesterday at the entrance to the El Aqsa Mosque, in the Old City of Jerusalem. The assassin, who had hidden behind the main gate of the mosque, shot at close range and was himself immediately shot dead by the King’s bodyguard. The King, who was 69, died instantly. His elder son, the Emir Talal, is undergoing medical treatment abroad, and in his absence the younger son, Prince Naif, took the oath of allegiance as Regent at a meeting of the Council of Ministers. The King’s body was flown to the capital, Amman, and will be buried in the Royal Cemetery on Monday. A state of emergency has been proclaimed throughout the country. The assassin is reported to have been identified as Mustafa Shukri Ashshu, a 21-year-old tailor in the Old City. During the Arab-Jewish war he was a member of the “dynamite squad” attached to the Arab irregular forces which were associated with the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem and became bitter enemies of Abdullah. Information was received at the Jordan Legation in London last night that several men were concerned in the crime. Jordan guards stopped all traffic between the Jordan and Israel sectors of Jerusalem and closed the frontier at noon, fifteen minutes after the assassination. A search was made in the Old City for accomplices. The Aqsa Mosque, where the King was murdered as he was about to attend noon prayers, is within half a mile of the Israeli border. Azzam Pasha, Secretary-General of the Arab League, said in Alexandria yesterday that he was going to Amman immediately to express the regret of the Arab world. King Abdullah served the Arab States all his life and the assassination is a crime condemned by every religion. The Regent of Iraq and the Jordan Minister in London will fly to Amman to-day. Messages of condolence have been sent from the Middle Eastern capitals to the Jordan Royal Family. At the United Nations headquarters in New York, Dr. Ralph Bunche, the former Acting Mediator in Palestine, said: King Abdullah was a unique personality in the modern world. He was a philosopher and poet, but he was also a realist and politically very astute. He was one of the most c harming men I have ever known. In all my dealings with him in connection with the Palestine dispute, I found him always friendly and reasonable and one whose word could be fully trusted. General William Riley, Chief of Staff of the United Nations Truce Commission in Palestine, said: I regret exceedingly the loss of a very fine individual with whom I have been associated with both personally and officially, on matters pertaining the Palestine problems over the past three years. I have lost a good friend. A French Foreign Office spokesman said the assassination was seen as an alarming sign of increasing tension and instability in the Middle East. This was more especially so as it followed the killing of Riad Bey es Sohl, the former Premier of the Lebanon, who was assassinated at Amman four days ago. King Abdullah is the fourth Moslem leader to be assassinated in four months. General Razmara, the Persian Prime Minister, like King Abdullah, was shot while entering a mosque by a member of the Fidiyan Islam sect on March 7. Twelve days later his close friend Dr Abdul Hamid Zanganeh, a Minister of Education, was shot on the steps of Tehran University, also by a member of Fidiyan Islam. The third murder was that of Riad es Sohl, in Jordan. He had visited King Abdullah and was on his way to the airport to return to Beirut. His murderers were said to be members of the Syrian Nationalist party. The Crown Prince Talal, who is 40, is now undergoing medical treatment following a general health deterioration which has produced nerve weakness. Prince Naif, the new Regent, went to Sandhurst after spending some time in the desert with a nomad tribe. Prince Talal’s son, the 14-year-old Prince Hussein, is now studying at Victoria College, Alexandria. The young King Feisal of Iraq, who is now at school in Britain, is Abdullah’s great-nephew. Abdullah’s father, King Hussein, was deposed as ruler of the Hejaz by King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, beginning a feud between the two families which ended after 25 years when Abdullah paid a state visit to Saudi Arabia in 1948. Abdullah’s part in stabilising Middle East. The news of the assassination of King Abdullah of Jordan has been received with profound distress and horror in London. A message of sympathy has been sent by the King to the family of King Abdullah. The kingdom of Jordan was one of the stabilising elements in the Middle East. For this Abdullah was himself primarily responsible. He leaves behind him, however, a strong Government headed by an energetic and competent Prime Minister. It may be hoped, therefore, that the immediate effects on law and order in Jordan may not prove as disastrous as they would probably be in other Arab countries. The assassin is stated to be an Arab tailor, formerly a member of forces associated with the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem. This might give some indication of the purpose which lay behind the act. The ex-Mufti, who spent part of the war in Berlin giving such assistance as he could to the Germans, has long been a bitter political enemy of King Abdullah. After Britain surrendered the mandate over Palestine the ex-Mufti put himself at the head of a movement to create an Arab State in Palestine. In 1950, after the fighting between the Arab States and Israel had been brought to an end, King Abdullah formally incorporated within his kingdom that part of Palestine which bordered on Jordan and which was still occupied by his troops. This step was subsequently recognised by the British and American Governments. It naturally provoked the bitter enmity of the ex-Mufti, whose movement for an Arab Palestine State has steadily been losing support ever since. No information has, however, yet reached London connecting the assassination of King Abdullah directly with the ex-Mufti’s movement. The ex-Mufti is believed to be in Syria at present. Mr Churchill said to-day, after learning of the assassination: I deeply regret the murder of this wise and faithful Arab ruler, who never deserted the cause of Britain and held out the hand of reconciliation to Israel. ” The Israeli Minister in London commented: “The assassination of King Abdullah has not only deprived the people of Jordan of their monarch but constitutes a serious blow to peace and stability in the Middle East. King Abdullah was a man who worked hard for understanding and peace between Israel and Jordan and whose efforts, if successful, would have contributed much to the welfare and progress of the entire area. RITTEN BY: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Abd Allah ibn al-? Abdullah I, in full? Usayn, (born 1882, Mecca-died July 20, 1951, Jerusalem), statesman who became the first ruler (1946-51) of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Abdullah, the second son of? Ali, the ruler of the Hejaz, was educated in Istanbul in what was then the Ottoman Empire. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, he represented Mecca in the Ottoman parliament. Early in 1914 he joined the Arab nationalist movement, which sought independence for Arab territories in the Ottoman Empire. In 1915-16 he played a leading role in clandestine negotiations between the British in Egypt and his father that led to the proclamation (June 10, 1916) of the Arab revolt against the Ottomans. Abdullah, the first king of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Abdullah I of Jordan (left) with his younger son, Na? On March 8, 1920, the Iraqi Congress, an organization of questionable legitimacy, proclaimed? Abdullah constitutional king of Iraq. But he declined the Iraqi throne, which was given to his brother Fay? Al I, whom French troops had driven out of Damascus a year earlier (July 1920). Al’s ascent to the throne, ? Abdullah occupied Transjordan and threatened to attack Syria. He gradually negotiated the legal separation of Transjordan from Britain’s Palestine mandate. Abdullah aspired to create a united Arab kingdom encompassing Syria, Iraq, and Transjordan. During World War II (1939-45), he actively sided with the United Kingdom, and his army, the Arab Legion-the most effective military force in the Arab world-took part in the British occupation of Syria and Iraq in 1941. In 1946 Transjordan became independent, and? Abdullah was crowned in Amman on May 25, 1946. He was the only Arab ruler prepared to accept the United Nations’ partitioning of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states (1947). In the war with Israel in May 1948, his armies occupied the region of Palestine due west of the Jordan River, which came to be called the West Bank, and captured east Jerusalem, including much of the Old City. Two years later he annexed the West Bank territory into the kingdom-thereupon changing the name of the country to Jordan. That annexation angered his former Arab allies, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt, all of which wanted to see the creation of a Palestinian Arab state on the West Bank. Abdullah’s popularity at home declined, and he was assassinated by a Palestinian nationalist. The reign of his son? Alal, who suffered from severe mental illness, was brief. A second son, Na? If, was passed over, and the throne soon went to? Abdullah I bin Al-Hussein Arabic:??? Founding of the Emirate of Transjordan. In their Revolt and their Awakening, Arabs never incited sedition or acted out of greed, but called for justice, liberty and national sovereignty. Abdullah’s about the Great Arab Revolt . In 1910, Abdullah persuaded his father to stand, successfully, for Grand Sharif of Mecca, a post for which Hussein acquired British support. In the following year, he became deputy for Mecca in the parliament established by the Young Turks, acting as an intermediary between his father and the Ottoman government.  In 1914, Abdullah paid a clandestine visit to Cairo to meet Lord Kitchener to seek British support for his father’s ambitions in Arabia. Abdullah maintained contact with the British throughout the First World War and in 1915 encouraged his father to enter into correspondence with Sir Henry McMahon, British high commissioner in Egypt, about Arab independence from Turkish rule.  This correspondence in turn led to the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans.  During the Arab Revolt of 1916-18, Abdullah commanded the Arab Eastern Army.  Abdullah began his role in the Revolt by attacking the Ottoman garrison at Ta’if on 10 June 1916.  The garrison consisted of 3,000 men with ten 75-mm Krupp guns. Abdullah led a force of 5,000 tribesmen but they did not have the weapons or discipline for a full attack. Instead, he laid siege to town. In July, he received reinforcements from Egypt in the form of howitzer batteries manned by Egyptian personnel. He then joined the siege of Medina commanding a force of 4,000 men based to the east and north-east of the town.  In August 1917, Abdullah worked closely with the French Captain Muhammand Ould Ali Raho in sabotaging the Hejaz Railway.  Abdullah’s relations with the British Captain T. Lawrence were not good, and as a result, Lawrence spent most of his time in the Hejaz serving with Abdullah’s brother, Faisal, who commanded the Arab Northern Army. Abdullah I of Transjordan during the visit to Turkey with Turkish President Mustafa Kemal. When French forces captured Damascus at the Battle of Maysalun and expelled his brother Faisal, Abdullah moved his forces from Hejaz into Transjordan with a view to liberating Damascus, where his brother had been proclaimed King in 1918.  Having heard of Abdullah’s plans, Winston Churchill invited Abdullah to a famous “tea party” where he convinced Abdullah to stay put and not attack Britain’s allies, the French. Churchill told Abdullah that French forces were superior to his and that the British did not want any trouble with the French. On 8 March 1920, Abdullah was proclaimed King of Iraq by the Iraqi Congress but he refused the position. After his refusal, his brother who had just been defeated in Syria, accepted the position. Although Abdullah established a legislative council in 1928, its role remained advisory, leaving him to rule as an autocrat.  Prime Ministers under Abdullah formed 18 governments during the 23 years of the Emirate. Abdullah set about the task of building Transjordan with the help of a reserve force headed by Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Peake, who was seconded from the Palestine police in 1921.  The force, renamed the Arab Legion in 1923, was led by John Bagot Glubb between 1930 and 1956.  During World War II, Abdullah was a faithful British ally, maintaining strict order within Transjordan, and helping to suppress a pro-Axis uprising in Iraq.  The Arab Legion assisted in the occupation of Iraq and Syria. Abdullah negotiated with Britain to gain independence. On 25 May 1946, the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan (renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on 26 April 1949) was proclaimed independent and Abdullah crowned king in Amman. King Abdullah declaring the end of the British Mandate and the independence of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 25 May 1946. Abdullah, alone among the Arab leaders of his generation, was considered a moderate by the West.  It is possible that he might have been willing to sign a separate peace agreement with Israel, but for the Arab League’s militant opposition. Because of his dream for a Greater Syria within the borders of what was then Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the British Mandate for Palestine under a Hashemite dynasty with “a throne in Damascus, ” many Arab countries distrusted Abdullah and saw him as both “a threat to the independence of their countries and they also suspected him of being in cahoots with the enemy” and in return, Abdullah distrusted the leaders of other Arab countries. Abdullah supported the Peel Commission in 1937, which proposed that Palestine be split up into a small Jewish state (20 percent of the British Mandate for Palestine) and the remaining land be annexed into Transjordan. The Arabs within Palestine and the surrounding Arab countries objected to the Peel Commission while the Jews accepted it reluctantly.  Ultimately, the Peel Commission was not adopted. In 1947, when the UN supported partition of Palestine into one Jewish and one Arab state, Abdullah was the only Arab leader supporting the decision. In 1946-48, Abdullah actually supported partition in order that the Arab allocated areas of the British Mandate for Palestine could be annexed into Transjordan. Abdullah went so far as to have secret meetings with the Jewish Agency (future Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir was among the delegates to these meetings) that came to a mutually agreed upon partition plan independently of the United Nations in November 1947.  On 17 November 1947, in a secret meeting with Meir, Abdullah stated that he wished to annex all of the Arab parts as a minimum, and would prefer to annex all of Palestine.  This partition plan was supported by British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin who preferred to see Abdullah’s territory increased at the expense of the Palestinians rather than risk the creation of a Palestinian state headed by the Mufti of Jerusalem Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. No people on earth have been less “anti-Semitic” than the Arabs. The persecution of the Jews has been confined almost entirely to the Christian nations of the West. Jews, themselves, will admit that never since the Great Dispersion did Jews develop so freely and reach such importance as in Spain when it was an Arab possession. With very minor exceptions, Jews have lived for many centuries in the Middle East, in complete peace and friendliness with their Arab neighbours. Abdullah’s essay titled “As the Arabs see the Jews” in The American Magazine, six months before the onset of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The claim has, however, been strongly disputed by Israeli historian Efraim Karsh. In an article in Middle East Quarterly, he alleged that extensive quotations from the reports of all three Jewish participants [at the meetings] do not support Shlaim’s account… The report of Ezra Danin and Eliahu Sasson on the Golda Meir meeting (the most important Israeli participant and the person who allegedly clinched the deal with Abdullah) is conspicuously missing from Shlaim’s book, despite his awareness of its existence.  According to Karsh, the meetings in question concerned an agreement based on the imminent U. Partition Resolution, [in Meir's words] “to maintain law and order until the UN could establish a government in that area”; namely, a short-lived law enforcement operation to implement the UN Partition Resolution, not obstruct it. On 4 May 1948, Abdullah, as a part of the effort to seize as much of Palestine as possible, sent in the Arab Legion to attack the Israeli settlements in the Etzion Bloc.  Less than a week before the outbreak of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Abdullah met with Meir for one last time on 11 May 1948.  Abdullah told Meir, Why are you in such a hurry to proclaim your state? Why don’t you wait a few years? I will take over the whole country and you will be represented in my parliament. I will treat you very well and there will be no war.  Abdullah proposed to Meir the creation “of an autonomous Jewish canton within a Hashemite kingdom, ” but Meir countered back that in November, they had agreed on a partition with Jewish statehood. “ Depressed by the unavoidable war that would come between Jordan and the Yishuv, one Jewish Agency representative wrote, “[Abdullah] will not remain faithful to the 29 November [UN Partition] borders, but [he] will not attempt to conquer all of our state [either]. “ Abdullah too found the coming war to be unfortunate, in part because he “preferred a Jewish state [as Transjordan's neighbor] to a Palestinian Arab state run by the mufti. King Abdullah welcomed by Palestinian Christian in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1948, the day after his forces took control over the city. The Palestinian Arabs, the neighboring Arab states, and the promise of the expansion of territory and the goal to conquer Jerusalem finally pressured Abdullah into joining them in an “all-Arab military intervention” against the newly created State of Israel on 15 May 1948, which he used to restore his prestige in the Arab world, which had grown suspicious of his relatively good relationship with Western and Jewish leaders.  Abdullah was especially anxious to take Jerusalem as compensation for the loss of the guardianship of Mecca, which had traditionally been held by the Hashemites until Ibn Saud seized the Hejaz in 1925.  Abdullah’s role in this war became substantial. He distrusted the leaders of the other Arab nations and thought they had weak military forces; the other Arabs distrusted Abdullah in return.  He saw himself as the “supreme commander of the Arab forces” and “persuaded the Arab League to appoint him” to this position.  His forces under their British commander Glubb Pasha did not approach the area set aside for the new Israel, though they clashed with the Yishuv forces around Jerusalem, intended to be an international zone. According to Abdullah el-Tell it was the King’s personal intervention that led to the Arab Legion entering the Old City against Glubb’s wishes. After conquering the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, at the end of the war, King Abdullah tried to suppress any trace of a Palestinian Arab national identity. Abdullah annexed the conquered Palestinian territory and granted the Palestinian Arab residents in Jordan Jordanian citizenship.  In 1949, Abdullah entered secret peace talks with Israel, including at least five with Moshe Dayan, the Military Governor of West Jerusalem and other senior Israelis.  News of the negotiations provoked a strong reaction from other Arab States and Abdullah agreed to discontinue the meetings in return for Arab acceptance of the West Bank’s annexation into Jordan. King Abdullah with Glubb Pasha, the day before his assassination, 19 July 1951. On 16 July 1951, Riad Bey Al Solh, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, had been assassinated in Amman, where rumours were circulating that Lebanon and Jordan were discussing a joint separate peace with Israel. 96 hours later, on 20 July 1951, while visiting Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, Abdullah was shot dead by a Palestinian from the Husseini clan,  who had passed through apparently heavy security. Contemporary media reports attributed the assassination to a secret order based in Jerusalem known only as “the Jihad”.  Abdullah was in Jerusalem to give a eulogy at the funeral and for a prearranged meeting with Reuven Shiloah and Moshe Sasson.  He was shot while attending Friday prayers at Al-Aqsa Mosque in the company of his grandson, Prince Hussein. The Palestinian gunman fired three fatal bullets into the King’s head and chest. Abdullah’s grandson, Prince Hussein, was at his side and was hit too. A medal that had been pinned to Hussein’s chest at his grandfather’s insistence deflected the bullet and saved his life.  Once Hussein became king, the assassination of Abdullah was said to have influenced Hussein not to enter peace talks with Israel in the aftermath of the Six-Day War in order to avoid a similar fate. The assassin, who was shot dead by the king’s bodyguards, was a 21-year-old tailor’s apprentice named Mustafa Shukri Ashu.  According to Alec Kirkbride, the British Resident in Amman, Ashu was a “former terrorist”, recruited for the assassination by Zakariyya Ukah, a livestock dealer and butcher. Ashu was killed; the revolver used to kill the king was found on his body, as well as a talisman with “Kill, thou shalt be safe” written on it in Arabic. The son of a local coffeeshop owner named Abdul Qadir Farhat identified the revolver as belonging to his father. On August 11, the Prime Minister of Jordan announced that ten men would be tried in connection with the assassination. These suspects included Colonel Abdullah at-Tell, who has been Governor of Jerusalem, and several others including Musa Ahmad al-Ayubbi, a Jerusalem vegetable merchant who had fled to Egypt in the days following the assassination. General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi of the Arab Legion was to preside over the trial, which began on August 18. Ayubbi and at-Tell, who had fled to Egypt, were tried and sentenced in absentia. Three of the suspects, including Musa Abdullah Husseini, were from the prominent Palestinian Husseini family, leading to speculation that the assassins were part of a mandate era opposition group. The Jordanian prosecutor asserted that Colonel el-Tell, who had been living in Cairo since January 1950, had given instructions that the killer, made to act alone, be slain at once thereafter, to shield the instigators of the crime. Jerusalem sources added that Col. El-Tell had been in close contact with the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni, and his adherents in the Kingdom of Egypt and in the All-Palestine protectorate in Gaza. El-Tell and Husseini, and three co-conspirators from Jerusalem, were sentenced to death. On 6 September 1951, Musa Ali Husseini,’Abid and Zakariyya Ukah, and Abd-el-Qadir Farhat were executed by hanging. Abdullah is buried at the Royal Court in Amman.  He was succeeded by his son Talal; however, since Talal was mentally ill, Talal’s son Prince Hussein became the effective ruler as King Hussein at the age of seventeen. In 1967, el-Tell received a full pardon from King Hussein. Abdullah married three times. In 1904, Abdullah married his first wife, Musbah bint Nasser (1884 – 15 March 1961), at Stinia Palace, Istinye, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. She was a daughter of Emir Nasser Pasha and his wife, Dilber Khanum. They had three children. Married Abdul-Karim Ja’afar Zeid Dhaoui. King Talal I (26 February 1909 – 7 July 1972). In 1913, Abdullah married his second wife, Suzdil Khanum d. 16 August 1968, at Istanbul, Turkey. They had two children. Prince Nayef bin Abdullah 14 November 1914 – 12 October 1983; A Colonel of the Royal Jordanian Land Force. Regent for his older half-brother, Talal, from 20 July to 3 September 1951. Princess Maqbula (6 February 1921 – 1 January 2001); married Hussein bin Nasser, Prime Minister of Jordan (terms 1963-64, 1967). In 1949, Abdullah married his third wife, Nahda bint Uman, a lady from Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, in Amman. They had one child. Princess Naifeh 1950-000when? Vte Hashemites. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). King Abdullah I of Jordan. Formerly Emir of Transjordan. Coat of arms of Jordan. His Highness the Emir of Transjordan (1921-46). His Majesty the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1946-51). Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE), 1920. UK OBE 1917 civil BAR. Grand Cordon of the Order of the Two Rivers, 1922. Grand Master of the Order of the Hashemites, 1932. Order of the Hashemites (Iraq) – ribbon bar. Founding Grand Master of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali. JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR. Grand Master of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance. Grand Master of the Order of Independence. Order of Independence Jordan. Order of Faisal I, 1st Class, 1932. Order of Faisal I (Iraq) – ribbon bar. Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG), 1935 (KCMG-1927). UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon. King George V Silver Jubilee Medal, 1935. King George VI Coronation Medal, 1937. Collar of the Order of Muhammad Ali of the Kingdom of Egypt, 1948. Order of Muhammad Ali (Egipt) – ribbon bar. Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi of the Empire of Iran, 1949. Order of Pahlavi (Iran). Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit (with white distinctive) of Francoist Spain, 6 September 1949. ESP Gran Cruz Merito Militar (Distintivo Blanco) pasador. Grand Cordon of the Order of Umayyad of Syria, 1950. Order Of Ummayad (Syria) – ribbon bar. 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- Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
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- Type: Photograph