1930 Photo Mormon Church Salt Lake City Utah Latter Day Sints Vintage 8×10

1930 Photo Mormon Church Salt Lake City Utah Latter Day Sints Vintage 8x10

1930 Photo Mormon Church Salt Lake City Utah Latter Day Sints Vintage 8x10

A VINTAGE 8X10 INCH PHOTO FROM 1930 DEPICTING. SALT LAKE CITY’S OUTSTANDING ATTRACTION IS THE WORLD FAMOUS MORMON TEMPLE, PICTURED CABOVE, WHICH WILL BE VIEWED BY GOVERNORS OF THIRTY STATES WHEN THE NATIONAL GOVERNOR’ CONFERENCE CONVENES FOR ITS 22ND ANNUAL SESSION IN UTAH’S CAPITOL CITY ON JUNE 30. Upon completion, temples are usually open to the public for a short period of time (an “open house”). During the open house, the church conducts tours of the temple with missionaries and members from the local area serving as tour guides, and all rooms of the temple are open to the public. The temple is then dedicated as a “House of the Lord”, after which only members who are deemed worthy are permitted entrance. They are not churches or meetinghouses designated for public weekly worship services, but rather are places of worship open only to the faithful where certain rites of the church must be performed. There are 165 dedicated temples (153 currently open; and 9 previously dedicated, but closed for renovation), 15 under construction, and 29 announced (not yet under construction), for a total of 209. At present, there are temples in many U. States, as well as in many countries across the world. Several temples are at historical sites of the LDS Church, such as Nauvoo, Illinois, Palmyra, New York, and Salt Lake City, Utah. The importance of temples is often emphasized in weekly meetings, and regular participation in “temple work” is strongly encouraged for all Latter-day Saints (LDS). Within temples, members of the church make covenants, receive instructions, and perform sacred ceremonies and ordinances, such as baptism for the dead, washing and anointing (or “initiatory” ordinances), the endowment, and eternal marriage sealings. Ordinances are a vital part of the theology of the church, which teaches that they were practiced by the Lord’s covenant people in all dispensations. Additionally, members consider the temple a place to commune with God, seek God’s aid, understand the will of God, and receive personal revelation. LDS temple construction reached an all-time high in 2000. As of March 2016, there are 150 operating temples. Chart of temple construction as of June 2019. Symbolism in the temple. History of interview questions. Wasatch Front, Utah area temples. Latter Day Saints cite various Old Testament references to temple ordinances such as those found in Exodus 29:4-9, Exodus 28:2-43 and Leviticus 8:6-13. The words “HOLINESS TO THE LORD” can be found on LDS temples as referenced in Exodus 28:36. Likewise the Tabernacle was considered a “portable temple” by the children of Israel in the Old Testament. The first Latter-day Saint temple ceremonies were performed in Kirtland, Ohio, but differed significantly from the endowment performed on the second floor of Joseph Smith’s Red Brick Store in Nauvoo, Illinois, and the Nauvoo Temple. Kirtland ordinances included washings and anointings (differing in many ways from the modern portion) and the washing of the feet ordinance. For nearly four years, beginning in 1842, Smith’s Red Brick Store functioned as a de facto temple-the site of the first washings, anointings, endowments, and sealings. In contrast, the grand edifice known as the Nauvoo Temple was in operation for only two months before the Latter Day Saints left Illinois for the West. Preparations to initiate the first members of Smith’s Quorum of the Anointed, [6] or Holy Order, as it was also known, were made on May 3, 1842. The walls of the second level of the Red Brick Store were painted with garden-themed murals, the rooms fitted with carpets, potted plants, and a veil hung from the ceiling. All the while, the ground level continued to operate as Smith’s general mercantile. After the early events of the succession crisis, Brigham Young assumed control of the church’s headquarters at Nauvoo, Illinois. While he and the rest of the Quorum of the Twelve made contingency plans for abandoning the city, he may have hoped that it would not prove necessary. For example, in early 1845, Young convened a conference at the Norwegian colony at Norway, Illinois, and announced a plan to build a Latter-day Saint town there with a temple for the use of the Norwegian Latter Day Saints. Meanwhile, Young urged the Latter-day Saints in Nauvoo to redouble their efforts to finish the temple. By the end of 1845, the building was sufficiently finished to allow temple ordinances to be performed. Ordinances continued to be performed in early 1846 as the Mormons were forced to abandon the city. A small crew remained in the city and continued to work on the temple until April 30, 1846, when it was formally dedicated in a private ceremony[7] by Joseph Young, [citation needed] the senior of the Seven Presidents of the Seventy. It was used for three months, then abandoned in late summer 1846. The completed temple was eventually destroyed by fire, and the remaining structure was later demolished by a whirlwind. The Frankfurt Germany Temple. Upon reaching the Great Basin, Brigham Young began to build settlements based on the City of Zion plan and designated four of these to contain temples: Salt Lake City (1847), St. George (1871), Manti (1875), and Logan (1877). George Temple was the first to be completed in 1877, followed by Logan (1884) and Manti (1888). The Salt Lake Temple took 40 years to complete because of various setbacks and delays. It was dedicated in 1893. Latter-day Saint temple building halted until the presidency of Joseph F. Smith, who announced two additional temples: Cardston, Alberta (1913), and La? Cardston became the first Latter-day Saint temple dedicated outside of the United States. Smith broke with the previous tradition (established since Kirtland) of building temples with upper and lower courts. Both Cardston and Laie were dedicated under church president Heber J. Grant, as was a temple in Mesa, Arizona. George Albert Smith dedicated the next temple in Idaho Falls, Idaho. McKay dedicated five additional temples including one in Bern, Switzerland-which was the first temple dedicated in Europe and the first temple to use film recording of the endowment rather than live actors. Joseph Fielding Smith dedicated a temple in Ogden, Utah and Harold B. Lee dedicated its twin in Provo, Utah. The Logan Utah Temple. Kimball began a plan to build many more smaller temples according to standardized plans. Twenty-one temples were dedicated during his presidency, including the tiny Papeete Tahiti Temple-which has a floorspace of less than 10,000 square feet (900 m²). This trend has continued. Nine additional temples were dedicated in the presidency of Ezra Taft Benson and two in the brief presidency of Howard W. Under church president Gordon B. Hinckley, the church dedicated 77 temples. In 1997, Hinckley introduced a standardized, smaller temple plan designed to bring temple services to smaller or remote congregations at a reduced cost. The first of this new generation of temples was completed in 1998 with the Monticello Utah Temple. The original plan called for 6,800 square feet (630 m2), later increased to 10,700 square feet (990 m2). Subsequent revisions to the standard design further increased the size and complexity of the temples. The majority of the temples dedicated under Hinckley’s tenure were of the smaller design, but one particularly noteworthy achievement was the rebuilding of the temple in Nauvoo, Illinois, known as the Nauvoo Illinois Temple. Hinckely’s successor, Thomas S. Monson, dedicated 26 temples during his time as church president. His counselors in the First Presidency also dedicated a number of temples during Monson’s administration. As of October 2018, Monson’s successor and current church president, Russell M. Nelson, has dedicated the Concepción Chile Temple. The spires of the Salt Lake Temple at night. Temples have a different purpose from LDS meetinghouses. [1] Today, temples serve two main purposes: (1) Temples are locations in which worthy Latter-day Saints can perform sacred ordinances on behalf of themselves, their deceased ancestors, or unrelated deceased persons whose names are compiled from historical records through the church’s Family Record Extraction Program. (2) Temples are considered to be houses of holiness where members can go to commune with God. Ezra Taft Benson, a former church president, taught. When I have been weighed down by a problem or a difficulty, I have gone to the House of the Lord with a prayer in my heart for answers. These answers have come in clear and unmistakable ways. Such personal revelation can be received as needed, but many feel that it is easier to receive such revelation in a temple. Main article: Temple architecture (Latter-day Saints). A doorknob of the Salt Lake Temple bearing an image of a beehive and carrying the inscription, “Holiness to the Lord”. Further information: Mormonism and Freemasonry. Many things in the temple are considered to be symbolic, from the clothing worn (those who attend the temple dress in white, a symbol of purity), to the architecture of the building and rooms, to the ceremonies themselves. Latter-day Saint temples are constructed with several symbolic elements meant to represent their religious theology. Each temple has the words “Holiness to the Lord” inscribed on it, the same inscription on the Old Testament Temple of Solomon. Most temples are built facing east, the direction from which Jesus Christ is prophesied to return. [citation needed] The spires and towers on the east end of multi-spired temples are elevated higher than spires and towers on the west side for this same reason, and to represent the Melchizedek, or higher, priesthood. Some temples, such as Salt Lake, Chicago, and Washington D. Have triple spires on each side of the temple representing three different offices in both the Melchizedek and Aaronic priesthood. Stones carved with sun, moon, and earth or star designs are placed in ascending order around the Salt Lake Temple façade to represent the Latter-day Saint belief in a celestial, terrestrial, and telestial kingdom, or three degrees of glory, in the afterlife. However, they are arranged using the description of the woman found in Revelation 12:1 which says And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. A statue of the Angel Moroni, stands atop most temples built after the Salt Lake Temple. The statue design represents the Latter-day Saint belief that Moroni was the angel spoken of in Revelation 14. It is also one of three temples designed to look like Solomon’s Temple in scripture and one of the few temples without spires. Main article: Ordinance (Latter Day Saints). LDS Church members perform rituals (termed ordinances) within temples. They are taught that temple ordinances are essential to achieving the condition of exaltation after the final judgment. They are also taught that a vast number of dead souls exist in a condition termed as spirit prison, and that a dead individual upon whom the temple ordinances are completed will have a chance to be freed of this imprisoning condition. In this framework ordinances are said to be completed on behalf of either the participant, or a dead individual the same sex as the participant (“on behalf of the dead” or “by proxy”). Ordinances performed in the temple include. Baptism and confirmation on behalf of the dead. Melchizedek priesthood ordination on behalf of the dead. Washing and anointing (also known as the “Initiatory” ordinances). Sealing ordinances (for opposite-sex couples and for parents and their children). Most ordinances are performed by proxy only on participants who have already completed the ordinance. Similarly, most ordinances are completed only one time for a participant in a lifetime and all subsequent temple ordinance participation is seen as acting for a dead individual. Baptism, confirmation, and priesthood ordination are usually performed in temples only when on behalf of the dead. The initiatory, endowment, and sealing ceremonies are today performed only within a temple. The sealing ordinance can be performed on behalf of dead couples; so long as the two living participants are of opposite sex they need not be married. It is also performed on behalf of living couples who wish to be legally married. In this manner, the ordinance is typically performed as a celestial marriage, with the idea the marriage bond lasts after their death, or for “time and all eternity”. A “time only” modification can be made to the ordinance, such as when the surviving widow of a celestial marriage wishes to legally remarry. [11] If children were born to the couple prior to the couple’s sealing ceremony, the parents and the children may also be sealed together to form an eternal family unit. Children born to a couple after the sealing ceremony are considered to be automatically sealed to the parents, or “born in the covenant”. In addition to the ordinances listed above, 19th century temples were host to other ordinances that are no longer practiced such as the baptism for health and baptism for renewal of covenants. [12] In 1922, Heber J. Grant discontinued the practice of baptisms for health in the church. The Second anointing is a rare, but currently practiced ordinance for live participants, [13][14] and (less commonly) vicariously for deceased individuals, [15] though, it is usually only given in absolute secrecy to a small number of members after a lifetime of service. Temple is the 16th Latter-day Saint temple. The Preston England Temple, located outside Chorley, Lancashire, England. The LDS Church booklet “Preparing to Enter the Holy Temple” explains that Latter-day Saints do not discuss the temple ordinances outside the temples. Further, the booklet states. It was never intended that knowledge of these temple ceremonies would be limited to a select few who would be obliged to ensure that others never learn of them. It is quite the opposite, in fact. With great effort the church urges every soul to qualify and prepare for the temple experience. To enter the temple, an individual must be baptized, and after one year, may seek a temple recommend. The individual is interviewed by his/her bishop, during which the candidate is asked a series of questions to determine worthiness to enter the temple. The individual is also interviewed by his or her stake president. The bishop and stake president sign the recommend, indicating their approval of that member’s worthiness. The individual also signs the recommend, acknowledging the responsibility to remain worthy to hold the recommend. A recommend is valid for two years. Further information: Confession (religion) § Mormonism. To qualify for a temple recommend, an LDS Church member must faithfully answer a series of questions which affirm the individual’s adherence to essential church doctrine. The questions address the following:[18][19]. Faith in and testimony of God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost. Testimony of the atonement of Jesus Christ. Testimony of the Restoration of the Gospel. Support of the President of the Church and his authority, and other general authorities and local church leaders. Living the law of chastity. Relationships with family members as being in harmony with church teachings. Support for or affiliation with any group or individual with teachings or practices that are not in agreement with church teachings. Making a good faith effort to keep the covenants the individual has made, to attend church meetings and keep their life in harmony with the gospel. Honesty in dealings with others. Paying a full tithe. Keeping the Word of Wisdom. If already attending the temple, does the individual keep the covenants made in the temple and wear the temple garment “night and day” according to the covenants made in the temple. Making a full confession of any serious sins to church leaders. Regarding oneself worthy to enter the temple and take part in the ordinances within. “Confession in LDS Doctrine and Practice”. “The History of LDS Temple Admission Standards”. Journal of Mormon History 24 (1): 135-176. Lee Hale (November 12, 2018). Why Do Mormon Bishops Talk To Youth About Sex? A list of questions were first introduced in 1857 and used to qualify whether an individual could enter the Endowment House, before the first temple in Utah was built. They reflected the context of the times, including questions about branding an animal that you did not own and using another person’s irrigation water. Since then, the temple recommend questions have changed significantly, though less so in recent years. In 1996, the first question about a belief in God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost was split into three questions. A second question was modified to ask if the member sustained the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve as prophets, seers, and revelators. The question about wearing the garments was qualified, added a clause about wearing them as instructed in the temple. In 1999, a simplified question about financial obligations was asked of all members, not just divorced members. In 2012, the question about wearing the garments was slightly modified to clarify that the garments should not be worn separately. The standard Temple Recommend authorizes a member who has been baptized at least one year prior to take part in all temple ordinances and is valid for two years. A Recommend for Living Ordinances is given to individuals who are participating in the endowment for the first time, being sealed to a spouse, or anyone being married in the temple for time only. It may only be used in conjunction with a standard Temple Recommend. A Limited-use Recommend is available to members who have not yet received their endowment or who have not been a member for one year. These may also be issued to a group for a single visit to the temple. [22] These can be issued to youth 12 and older who will take part in specific temple ordinances, to single members age 8-20 who are preparing to be sealed to their parents, or for individuals, not endowed, who wish to observe specific ordinances. The church member must meet the same worthiness standards as a standard temple recommend in an interview with the member’s bishop. Unlike the standard temple recommend, a limited-use recommend does not require a year’s membership nor an interview with a stake president. A limited-use recommend is only valid for proxy baptisms and confirmation ordinances. Those without recommends occasionally need to enter temples after dedication during fires, medical emergencies, or building inspections. They are escorted by temple personnel during such visits. Temples may offer introductory tours to new local firefighters and emergency medical technicians during regularly scheduled maintenance periods. An LDS Temple in Omaha, Nebraska. Main articles: Sealing (Mormonism) and Sealing room. The LDS temple wedding is a process which culminates in the participation by the couple in a ritual called the sealing ordinance; which involves pronouncing the couple as having a permanent marriage bond which persists even beyond death. This ceremony, among others, is taught as being vital to an individual’s and family’s exaltation status, following the final judgment. With the sealing ordinance being held inside a temple, only church members in good standing who have a valid temple recommend are permitted to attend the ceremony. In many nations outside the United States, a civil ceremony, where required by the law of the land, has been immediately followed by a temple sealing. However, in the United States, a one-year waiting period between the civil ceremony and a temple sealing was required. In May 2019, to standardize sealing policies on a global scale, church leaders announced an end to the one-year waiting period in most cases, except in relation to converts to the church, who are still required to wait a year after their own confirmation before entering the temple. Receptions after the temple ceremony, or engagement parties before the temple marriage, can be attended by anyone, since they are typically held at locations such as local LDS meetinghouses, homes, other churches, or other public venues. In the Latter Day Saint movement, a temple is a building dedicated to be a house of God and is reserved for special forms of worship. A temple differs from a church meetinghouse, which is used for weekly worship services. [1] Temples have been a significant part of the Latter Day Saint movement since early in its inception. Today, temples are operated by several Latter Day Saint denominations. The most prolific builder of temples of the Latter Day Saint movement is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Several other variations of the church have built or attempted to build temples. The Community of Christ operates two temples in the United States, which are open to the public and are used for worship services, performances, and religious education. [2] Other denominations with temples are the Apostolic United Brethren, the Church of Christ, the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite). Other denominations with temples. Unsuccessful attempts at building temples. Performing ordinances in other buildings. The Kirtland Temple, owned and maintained by the Community of Christ, was the first temple of the Latter Day Saint movement and the only temple completed in the lifetime of Joseph Smith. The Nauvoo Temple: built in 1846, destroyed soon after, and rebuilt in 2002. The Latter Day Saint movement was conceived as a restoration of practices believed to have been lost in a Great Apostasy from the true gospel of Jesus Christ. Temple worship played a prominent role in the Bible’s Old Testament, and in the Book of Mormon. On December 27, 1832, two years after the organization of the Church of Christ, the church’s founder, Joseph Smith, reported receiving a revelation that called upon church members to restore the practice of temple worship. The Latter Day Saints in Kirtland, Ohio, were commanded to. Establish a house, even a house of prayer, a house of fasting, a house of faith, a house of learning, a house of glory, a house of order, a house of God. Latter Day Saints see temples as the fulfillment of a prophecy found in Malachi 3:1 (KJV): Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts. ” It is believed to emphasize that when the Jesus comes again, he will come “to his temple. As plans were drawn up to construct a temple in Kirtland, the decision was made to simultaneously begin work on a second temple at the church’s colony in Jackson County, Missouri. Surviving plans indicate that both temples would have the same dimensions and approximately the same appearance and both were to be at the “centerplaces” of cities designed according to Smith’s plan for the City of Zion. Conflict in Missouri led to the expulsion of the Mormons from Jackson County, preventing any possibility of building a temple there, but work on the temple in Kirtland continued. At great cost and sacrifice, the Latter Day Saints finished the Kirtland Temple in early 1836. On March 27, they held a lengthy dedication ceremony and numerous spiritual experiences and visitations were reported. Conflict relating to the failure of the church’s Kirtland Safety Society bank, caused the church presidency to leave Kirtland and move the church’s headquarters to the Mormon settlement of Far West, Missouri. Far West was also platted along the lines of the City of Zion plan and in 1838 the church began construction of a new, larger temple in the center of the town. They may also have dedicated a temple site in the neighboring Mormon settlement of Adam-ondi-Ahman. The events of the 1838 Mormon War and the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri left these attempts at temple-building no further progressed than excavating foundations. In 1839, the Mormons regrouped at a new headquarters in Nauvoo, Illinois. They were again commanded to build a “House of the Lord”-this one even larger and greater than those that went before. Plans for the temple in Nauvoo followed the earlier models in Kirtland and Independence with lower and upper courts, but the scale was much increased. New conflicts arose that caused Joseph Smith, the prophet and president of the church, to be murdered, along with his brother Hyrum, at Carthage Jail on June 27, 1844. The Nauvoo Temple stood only half finished. Eventually, this temple was finished and dedicated. Some temple ordinances were performed before most of the Latter Day Saints followed Brigham Young west across the Mississippi River. Joseph Smith’s death resulted in a succession crisis which divided the movement into different sects. The concept of temple worship evolved separately in many of these sects and until the 1990s only the sects claiming a succession through Brigham Young continued to build new temples. In April 1990, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS Church) began to construct the Independence Temple, which was officially dedicated in 1994. The RLDS Church-now called the Community of Christ-owns the Kirtland Temple, which is used for worship services and special events but also open to visitors, including various Latter Day Saint denominations interested in the building’s historical significance. Temple in Salt Lake City on “Temple Square” circa 1897. The Mesa Arizona Temple built in 1919. Temples have held numerous purposes in the Latter Day Saint movement, both historically and their differing expressions today. A House of the Lord – Joseph Smith reported a revelation in 1836 explaining that the recently dedicated Kirtland Temple was built that the Son of Man might have a place to manifest himself to his people. (Doctrine and Covenants LDS 109:5). All Latter Day Saint denominations with temples still consider temples to be special houses of the Lord. A House of Learning – The Kirtland Temple housed the School of the Prophets. Center of the City of Zion – Latter Day Saints often view temples as central to the establishment of Zionic communities. Examples include: the Kirtland Temple, the original (unfinished) Independence Temple, the (unfinished) Far West Temple, the (unfinished) Adam-ondi-Ahman Temple, the original Nauvoo Temple, the Salt Lake Temple, the St. Headquarters of the church – the Kirtland Temple served as the headquarters of the early church from its completion in 1836 through the end of 1837. Sacred spaces for special ordinances – Beginning in Nauvoo, temples were spaces in which to perform special ordinances such as the endowment and baptism for the dead – see Ordinance (Mormonism). The Columbus Ohio Temple, an example of smaller temples built under Hinckley’s direction. The Preston Temple in the United Kingdom in February 2009. Main article: Temple (LDS Church). See also: List of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has been the most prolific builder of temples in the Latter Day Saint movement. In the LDS Church, temples are not only a House of the Lord, but are also where members of the church make covenants and perform sacred ordinances such as baptism for the dead, washing and anointing (or “initiatory” ordinances), the endowment, and eternal marriage sealings. [5] Ordinances are a vital part of the theology of the church, which teaches that they were practiced by God’s covenant people in all dispensations. Upon completion (or after the completion of significant renovations), temples are open to the public for a period of time (an “open house”). The temple is then dedicated as a “House of the Lord, ” after which only members in good standing are permitted entrance. Thus, in the LDS Church, temples are not churches or meetinghouses but rather places of more consecrated worship. In 1832, shortly after the formation of the church, Joseph Smith said that the Lord desired the Latter Day Saints build a temple;[6] and they completed the Kirtland Temple in 1836. Differing from other churches in the Latter Day Saint tradition, members feel that the first endowment ceremonies were performed in Kirtland, Ohio, although the endowment performed in Kirtland differed significantly from the endowment performed by Smith in Nauvoo. The construction of the Nauvoo Temple and the teaching of the full endowment by Smith are seen as the final steps in restoring the church founded by Jesus Christ following the Great Apostasy. Because it is an integral part of their worship, Mormon pioneers, upon arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, began plans to build temples there, and built the Endowment House to allow members to receive the endowment until the temples were completed. In the mid 20th century, because of the importance of temples in the theology, the church tried to balance density with the travel requirements that attending the temple imposed upon members. Thus, temples were built in Europe (Switzerland-1955 and England-1958); the Pacific Islands (New Zealand-1958); and Washington, D. (1974) when membership alone might not have justified the effort. Temple growth continued in the 1980s, Spencer W. Kimball directed the church to build smaller temples with similar designs. Before this time, all but the Swiss Temple were at least 45,000 square feet (4,200 m2), and the average size of the first 20 temples was 103,000 square feet (9,570 m2). The new temples varied in size but were generally less than 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2) allowing temples to be built where there were fewer members. As a result, the first temples in South America (Brazil-1978); Asia (Japan-1980); and Latin America (Mexico City-1983) were built and the number of temples doubled from 15 to 36. LDS Church president Gordon B. [8] Between the brief building period from 1998 to 2001, 38 of these standardized temples were constructed and dedicated, meeting Hinckley’s goal and, during Hinckley’s service as president, the number of temples more than doubled from 47 to 124. Independence Temple of Community of Christ in Independence, Missouri, USA. Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) maintains two temples. Unlike those of the LDS Church, these temples are open to the public. Many religious functions take place including communion and a daily prayer for peace. The temple built in Kirtland, Ohio, is owned and maintained by Community of Christ. This was the first temple built by the Latter Day Saint movement and the only temple completed in the lifetime of Joseph Smith. During its 1994 World Conference, Community of Christ dedicated the Independence Temple located in Independence, Missouri. The Community of Christ describes this temple as a house of worship and education “dedicated to the pursuit of peace”. [9] The church holds a Daily Prayer for Peace at 1:00 p. Central Time in the temple’s 1,600 seat sanctuary. Cutlerite meetinghouse in Independence, Missouri, which serves the functions of a temple. The Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) performs temple ordinances in its Independence, Missouri, meetinghouse, their only building still in active use, [10] though the church also believes in the principle of constructing special temples such as the ones in Kirtland and Nauvoo. Cutlerites do not designate their meetinghouse as a temple per se, but they believe that it serves precisely the same purpose and that the ordinances performed there are equally as valid as ones done in any pre-1844 temple. [11] These sacred services of the Cutlerites are not open to the public, and participants are forbidden to discuss them outside the room in which they are performed. Cutlerite meetinghouses are constructed with a main-floor chapel that is always open to the public unless baptisms for the dead are being performed; a second-floor room, which is closed to the public at all times, is reserved for the ordinances of the endowment. Cutlerites do not use the term “endowment” to refer to these rituals; they generally refer to them as the priesthood ordinances. A rectangular-shaped baptismal font is accessed through a trap door beneath the floor of the main-floor chapel, which is used for baptisms of both the living and the dead. Eternal marriages are not performed by the Cutlerites, as they have always rejected that particular doctrine. Four additional Latter Day Saint denominations have built temples. The Church of Christ (Wightite) built a temple near Zodiac, Texas, about three miles from Fredericksburg, at a colony founded by Lyman Wight. The only remaining material infrastructure of the colony is the Mormon Mill cemetery near Hamilton Creek, about fifty miles east by north of Fredericksburg. The Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a denomination founded in 1978, built a pyramid-shaped temple near Modena, Utah. [13] This was the first time any of the polygamous Mormon fundamentalists sects built a temple of their own. The Apostolic United Brethren built a temple in Ozumba, Mexico, in the 1990s, and has had an endowment house in Utah since sometime in the 1980s. The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS) built a temple at their settlement near Eldorado, Texas, in 2004. The architectural footprint of the FLDS temple roughly matches that of the original Nauvoo Temple. During the life of Joseph Smith, a few years before the Kirtland temple was built, Smith dedicated a location in Independence, Missouri, for the building of a special temple, which was to be the center of a New Jerusalem. However, hostile action by non-Mormon citizens resulted in the expulsion of all Latter Day Saints from the area in 1833, and the planned temple did not proceed beyond the laying of cornerstones. As of 2011, the lot for this temple is owned and maintained by the Church of Christ (Temple Lot). The Temple Lot church endeavored to construct a temple beginning in 1929, as a result of a revelation that apostle Otto Fetting was said to have received from John the Baptist. A hole for the proposed temple basement was excavated, and architects’ drawings were done, but no further work was completed due to a chronic lack of funding and the expulsion of Fetting and his followers (about one-third of the Temple Lot organization at the time) from the Temple Lot church. In 1946, the City of Independence had the hole filled in, and the lot today is mostly covered with grass, with the Church of Christ’s meetinghouse and a few trees at the northeast corner. [14] Today, the Temple Lot church has no plans to build a temple but sees itself as the steward of the lot until the various Latter Day Saint factions unite around the time of Jesus Christ’s Second Coming. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) endeavored to construct a temple in the mid-1840s in Voree, Wisconsin, according to a rather elaborate plan devised by their prophet James J. Poverty and factional infighting among the Strangites prevented the temple from progressing beyond the planning stage. [15] The church has made no attempt to build temples since Strang’s death. From 1855 to 1889, the LDS Church performed ordinances in the Endowment House to allow members to receive the endowment during construction of temples in Utah. Before the Endowment House was built, the Council House was similarly used, between 1850 and 1855. Building currently known as the Endowment House, Spring City, Utah. Historically, there were other locations where ordinances for the living were performed, both indoors and out, as recorded in pioneer journals. One of these is a building known as the Endowment House in Spring City, Utah, built by Orson Hyde. [16] The building is still standing at 85 West 300 South. The Endowment House in Salt Lake City was razed in 1889 after church president Wilford Woodruff learned that plural marriages were being performed there without the authorization of the First Presidency. Latter Day Saints portal. Holy of Holies (LDS Church). List of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith’s death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Other Mormons may be independently religious, secular and non-practicing, or belong to another denomination. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, and North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States. Mormons have developed a strong sense of commonality that stems from their doctrine and history. During the 19th century, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location, and between 1852 and 1890 a minority of Mormons openly practiced plural marriage, a form of religious polygamy. Mormons dedicate large amounts of time and resources to serving in their church, and many young Mormons choose to serve a full-time proselytizing mission. Mormons have a health code which eschews alcoholic beverages, tobacco, “hot drinks”, and addictive substances. They tend to be very family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended family, reflective of their belief that families can be sealed together beyond death. Mormons also have a strict law of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside heterosexual marriage and fidelity within marriage. Mormons self-identify as Christian, [9] although some non-Mormons consider Mormons non-Christian[10] and some of their beliefs differ from those of mainstream Christianity. Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books of scripture, such as the Book of Mormon. They have a unique view of cosmology and believe that all people are spirit-children of God. Mormons believe that returning to God requires following the example of Jesus Christ, and accepting his atonement through ordinances such as baptism. They believe that Christ’s church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. Central to Mormon faith is the belief that God speaks to his children and answers their prayers. The number of members in 1971 was 3,090,953[11] and as of 2018, there are 16,118,169 members worldwide. Latter-day Saints (the “LDS”). The word “Mormons” most often refers to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) because of their belief in the Book of Mormon, though members often refer to themselves as Latter-day Saints or sometimes just Saints. [14] The term “Mormons” has been embraced by others, most notably Mormon fundamentalists, [15] while other Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, have rejected it. [citation needed] Both LDS Church members and members of fundamentalist groups commonly use the word “Mormon” in reference to themselves. [16] LDS Church leaders have encouraged members to use the church’s full name to emphasize its focus on Jesus Christ, [17][18] and have discouraged the use of the shortened form “Church of the Latter Day Saints”, as well as the acronym “LDS”, and the nickname “Mormons”. The word “Mormon” is often associated with polygamy (or plural marriage), [21] which was a distinguishing practice of many early Mormons; however, it was renounced by the LDS Church in 1890[22] and discontinued over the next 15 years. [23] Today, polygamy is practiced within Mormonism only by people that have broken with the LDS Church. Main article: History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The history of the Mormons has shaped them into a people with a strong sense of unity and commonality. [25] From the start, Mormons have tried to establish what they call “Zion”, a utopian society of the righteous. [26] Mormon history can be divided into three broad time periods: (1) the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, (2) a “pioneer era” under the leadership of Brigham Young and his successors, and (3) a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century. In the first period, Smith had tried literally to build a city called Zion, in which converts could gather. During the pioneer era, Zion became a “landscape of villages” in Utah. In modern times, Zion is still an ideal, though Mormons gather together in their individual congregations rather than a central geographic location. See also: History of the Latter Day Saint movement. A stained glass window of Joseph Smith’s First Vision. Mormons trace their origins to the visions that Joseph Smith reported he had in the early 1820s while living in upstate New York. [28] In 1823, Smith said an angel directed him to a buried book written on golden plates containing the religious history of an ancient people. [29] Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates in March 1830 as the Book of Mormon, named after Mormon, the ancient prophet-historian who compiled the book. On April 6, 1830, Smith founded the Church of Christ. [30] The early church grew westward as Smith sent missionaries to proselytize. [31] In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland, Ohio where missionaries had made a large number of converts[32] and Smith began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, Missouri, [33] where he planned to eventually build the city of Zion (or the New Jerusalem). [34] In 1833, Missouri settlers, alarmed by the rapid influx of Mormons, expelled them from Jackson County into the nearby Clay County, where local residents were more welcoming. [35] After Smith led a mission, known as Zion’s Camp, to recover the land, [36] he began building Kirtland Temple in Lake County, Ohio, where the church flourished. [37] When the Missouri Mormons were later asked to leave Clay County in 1836, they secured land in what would become Caldwell County. The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after the failure of a church-sponsored anti-bank caused widespread defections, [39] and Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, Missouri. [40] During the fall of 1838, tensions escalated into the Mormon War with the old Missouri settlers. [41] On October 27, the governor of Missouri ordered that the Mormons “must be treated as enemies” and be exterminated or driven from the state. [42] Between November and April, some eight thousand displaced Mormons migrated east into Illinois. Joseph Smith preaching to the Sac and Fox Indians who visited Nauvoo on August 12, 1841. The city became the church’s new headquarters and gathering place, and it grew rapidly, fueled in part by converts immigrating from Europe. [45] Meanwhile, Smith introduced temple ceremonies meant to seal families together for eternity, as well as the doctrines of eternal progression or exaltation, [46] and plural marriage. [47] Smith created a service organization for women called the Relief Society, as well as an organization called the Council of Fifty, representing a future theodemocratic “Kingdom of God” on the earth. [48] Smith also published the story of his First Vision, in which the Father and the Son appeared to him while he was about 14 years old. [49] This vision would come to be regarded by some Mormons as the most important event in human history after the birth, ministry, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In 1844, local prejudices and political tensions, fueled by Mormon peculiarity and internal dissent, escalated into conflicts between Mormons and “anti-Mormons”. [51] On June 27, 1844, Smith and his brother Hyrum were killed by a mob in Carthage, Illinois. [52] Because Hyrum was Smith’s logical successor, [53] their deaths caused a succession crisis, [54] and Brigham Young assumed leadership over the majority of Latter Day Saints. [55] Young had been a close associate of Smith’s and was senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve. [56] Smaller groups of Latter Day Saints followed other leaders to form other denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. A statue commemorating the Mormon handcart pioneers. For two years after Smith’s death, conflicts escalated between Mormons and other Illinois residents. To prevent war, Brigham Young led the Mormon pioneers (constituting most of the Latter Day Saints) to a temporary winter quarters in Nebraska and then, eventually (beginning in 1847), to what became the Utah Territory. [58] Having failed to build Zion within the confines of American society, the Mormons began to construct a society in isolation, based on their beliefs and values. [59] The cooperative ethic that Mormons had developed over the last decade and a half became important as settlers branched out and colonized a large desert region now known as the Mormon Corridor. [61] The Mormons viewed land as commonwealth, devising and maintaining a co-operative system of irrigation that allowed them to build a farming community in the desert. From 1849 to 1852, the Mormons greatly expanded their missionary efforts, establishing several missions in Europe, Latin America, and the South Pacific. [63] Converts were expected to “gather” to Zion, and during Young’s presidency (1847-77) over seventy thousand Mormon converts immigrated to America. [63] Many of the converts came from England and Scandinavia, and were quickly assimilated into the Mormon community. [64] Many of these immigrants crossed the Great Plains in wagons drawn by oxen, while some later groups pulled their possessions in small handcarts. During the 1860s, newcomers began using the new railroad that was under construction. In 1852, church leaders publicized the previously secret practice of plural marriage, a form of polygamy. [66] Over the next 50 years, many Mormons (between 20 and 30 percent of Mormon families)[67] entered into plural marriages as a religious duty, with the number of plural marriages reaching a peak around 1860, and then declining through the rest of the century. [68] Besides the doctrinal reasons for plural marriage, the practice made some economic sense, as many of the plural wives were single women who arrived in Utah without brothers or fathers to offer them societal support. Mormon pioneers crossing the Mississippi on the ice. By 1857, tensions had again escalated between Mormons and other Americans, largely as a result of accusations involving polygamy and the theocratic rule of the Utah Territory by Brigham Young. [70] In 1857, U. President James Buchanan sent an army to Utah, which Mormons interpreted as open aggression against them. Fearing a repeat of Missouri and Illinois, the Mormons prepared to defend themselves, determined to torch their own homes in the case that they were invaded. [71] The relatively peaceful Utah War ensued from 1857 to 1858, in which the most notable instance of violence was the Mountain Meadows massacre, when leaders of a local Mormon militia ordered the killing of a civilian emigrant party that was traveling through Utah during the escalating tensions. [72] In 1858, Young agreed to step down from his position as governor and was replaced by a non-Mormon, Alfred Cumming. [73] Nevertheless, the LDS Church still wielded significant political power in the Utah Territory. At Young’s death in 1877, he was followed by other LDS Church presidents, who resisted efforts by the United States Congress to outlaw Mormon polygamous marriages. [75] In 1878, the U. Supreme Court ruled in Reynolds v. United States that religious duty was not a suitable defense for practicing polygamy, and many Mormon polygamists went into hiding; later, Congress began seizing church assets. [75] In September 1890, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto that officially suspended the practice of polygamy. [76] Although this Manifesto did not dissolve existing plural marriages, relations with the United States markedly improved after 1890, such that Utah was admitted as a U. After the Manifesto, some Mormons continued to enter into polygamous marriages, but these eventually stopped in 1904 when church president Joseph F. Smith disavowed polygamy before Congress and issued a “Second Manifesto” calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease. Eventually, the church adopted a policy of excommunicating members found practicing polygamy, and today seeks actively to distance itself from “fundamentalist” groups that continue the practice. Further information: Mormonism as a world religion. During the early 20th century, Mormons began to reintegrate into the American mainstream. In 1929, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir began broadcasting a weekly performance on national radio, becoming an asset for public relations. [78] Mormons emphasized patriotism and industry, rising in socioeconomic status from the bottom among American religious denominations to middle-class. [79] In the 1920s and 1930s, Mormons began migrating out of Utah, a trend hurried by the Great Depression, as Mormons looked for work wherever they could find it. [80] As Mormons spread out, church leaders created programs that would help preserve the tight-knit community feel of Mormon culture. [81] In addition to weekly worship services, Mormons began participating in numerous programs such as Boy Scouting, a Young Women organization, church-sponsored dances, ward basketball, camping trips, plays, and religious education programs for youth and college students. [82] During the Great Depression, the church started a welfare program to meet the needs of poor members, which has since grown to include a humanitarian branch that provides relief to disaster victims. The 360-member, all-volunteer Mormon Tabernacle Choir. During the later half of the 20th century, there was a retrenchment movement in Mormonism in which Mormons became more conservative, attempting to regain their status as a “peculiar people”. [84] Though the 1960s and 1970s brought changes such as Women’s Liberation and the civil rights movement, Mormon leaders were alarmed by the erosion of traditional values, the sexual revolution, the widespread use of recreational drugs, moral relativism, and other forces they saw as damaging to the family. [85] Partly to counter this, Mormons put an even greater emphasis on family life, religious education, and missionary work, becoming more conservative in the process. As a result, Mormons today are probably less integrated with mainstream society than they were in the early 1960s. Although black people have been members of Mormon congregations since Joseph Smith’s time, before 1978, black membership was small. From 1852 to 1978, the LDS Church enforced a policy that restricted men of black African descent from being ordained to the church’s lay priesthood. [87] The church was sharply criticized for its policy during the civil rights movement, but the policy remained in force until a 1978 reversal that was prompted in part by questions about mixed-race converts in Brazil. [88] In general, Mormons greeted the change with joy and relief. [88] Since 1978, black membership has grown, and in 1997 there were approximately 500,000 black members of the church (about 5 percent of the total membership), mostly in Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean. [89] Black membership has continued to grow substantially, especially in West Africa, where two temples have been built. [90] Many black Mormons are members of the Genesis Group, an organization of black members that predates the priesthood ban, and is endorsed by the church. Global distribution of LDS Church members in 2009. The LDS Church grew rapidly after World War II and became a worldwide organization as missionaries were sent across the globe. The church doubled in size every 15 to 20 years, [92] and by 1996, there were more Mormons outside the United States than inside. [93] In 2012, there were an estimated 14.8 million Mormons, [94] with roughly 57 percent living outside the United States. [95] It is estimated that approximately 4.5 million Mormons – roughly 30% of the total membership – regularly attend services. [96] A majority of U. Mormons are white and non-Hispanic (84 percent). [97] Most Mormons are distributed in North and South America, the South Pacific, and Western Europe. The global distribution of Mormons resembles a contact diffusion model, radiating out from the organization’s headquarters in Utah. [98] The church enforces general doctrinal uniformity, and congregations on all continents teach the same doctrines, and international Mormons tend to absorb a good deal of Mormon culture, possibly because of the church’s top-down hierarchy and a missionary presence. However, international Mormons often bring pieces of their own heritage into the church, adapting church practices to local cultures. Chile, Uruguay, and several areas in the South Pacific have a higher percentage of Mormons than the United States (which is at about 2 percent). [100] South Pacific countries and dependencies that are more than 10 percent Mormon include American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Kiribati, Niue, Samoa, and Tonga. Main article: Culture of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Isolation in Utah had allowed Mormons to create a culture of their own. [101] As the faith spread around the world, many of its more distinctive practices followed. Mormon converts are urged to undergo lifestyle changes, repent of sins, and adopt sometimes atypical standards of conduct. The most important part of the church services is considered to be the Lord’s Supper (commonly called sacrament), in which church members renew covenants made at baptism. [102] Mormons also emphasize standards they believe were taught by Jesus Christ, including personal honesty, integrity, obedience to law, chastity outside marriage and fidelity within marriage. In 2010, around 13-14 percent of Mormons lived in Utah, the center of cultural influence for Mormonism. [104] Utah Mormons (as well as Mormons living in the Intermountain West) are on average more culturally and/or politically conservative than those living in some cosmopolitan centers elsewhere in the U. [105] Utahns self-identifying as Mormon also attend church somewhat more on average than Mormons living in other states. Nonetheless, whether they live in Utah or elsewhere in the U. Mormons tend to be more culturally and/or politically conservative than members of other U. [106] Utah Mormons often place a greater emphasis on pioneer heritage than international Mormons who generally are not descendants of the Mormon pioneers. A Mormon meetinghouse used for Sunday worship services in Brazil. Mormons have a strong sense of communality that stems from their doctrine and history. [107] LDS Church members have a responsibility to dedicate their time and talents to helping the poor and building the church. The church is divided by locality into congregations called “wards”, with several wards or branches to create a “stake”. [108] The vast majority of church leadership positions are lay positions, and church leaders may work 10 to 15 hours a week in unpaid church service. [109] Observant Mormons also contribute 10 percent of their income to the church as tithing, and are often involved in humanitarian efforts. Many LDS young men, women and elderly couples choose to serve a proselytizing mission, during which they dedicate all of their time to the church, without pay. Mormons adhere to the Word of Wisdom, a health law or code that is interpreted as prohibiting the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, coffee and tea, [111] while encouraging the use of herbs, grains, fruits, and a moderate consumption of meat. [112] The Word of Wisdom is also understood to forbid other harmful and addictive substances and practices, such as the use of illegal drugs and abuse of prescription drugs. [113] Mormons are encouraged to keep a year’s supplies that include a food supply and a financial reserve. [114] Mormons also oppose behaviors such as viewing pornography and gambling. The concept of a united family that lives and progresses forever is at the core of Latter-day Saint doctrine, and Mormons place a high importance on family life. [115] Many Mormons hold weekly Family Home Evenings, in which an evening is set aside for family bonding, study, prayer and other activities they consider to be wholesome. Latter-day Saint fathers who hold the priesthood typically name and bless their children shortly after birth to formally give the child a name. Mormon parents hope and pray that their children will gain testimonies of the “gospel”[vague] so they can grow up and marry in temples. Mormons have a strict law of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside opposite-sex marriage and strict fidelity within marriage. All sexual activity (heterosexual and homosexual) outside marriage is considered a serious sin, with marriage recognized as only between a man and a woman. [117] Same-sex marriages are not performed or supported by the LDS Church. Church members are encouraged to marry and have children, and Latter-day Saint families tend to be larger than average. Mormons are opposed to abortion, except in some exceptional circumstances, such as when pregnancy is the result of incest or rape, or when the life or health of the mother is in serious jeopardy. [118] Many practicing adult Mormons wear religious undergarments that remind them of covenants and encourage them to dress modestly. Latter-day Saints are counseled not to partake of any form of media that is obscene or pornographic in any way, including media that depicts graphic representations of sex or violence. Tattoos and body piercings are also discouraged, with the exception of a single pair of earrings for LDS women. LGBT Mormons, or Mormons who self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, remain in good standing in the church if they abstain from homosexual relations and obey the law of chastity. [120] While there are no official numbers, LDS Family Services estimates that there are on average four or five members per LDS ward who experience same-sex attraction. [121] Gary Watts, former president of Family Fellowship, estimates that only 10 percent of homosexuals stay in the church. [122] Many of these individuals have come forward through different support groups or websites discussing their homosexual attractions and concurrent church membership. See also: Mormon spectrums of orthodoxy and -praxy, List of denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints membership statistics. Note that the categories below are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Members of the LDS Church, also known as Latter-day Saints, constitute over 95 percent of Mormons. [126] The beliefs and practices of LDS Mormons are generally guided by the teachings of LDS Church leaders. However, several smaller groups substantially differ from “mainstream” Mormonism in various ways. LDS Church members who do not actively participate in worship services or church callings are often called “less-active” or “inactive” (akin to the qualifying expressions non-observant or non-practicing used in relation to members of other religious groups). [127] The LDS Church does not release statistics on church activity, but it is likely that about 40 percent of Mormons in the United States and 30 percent worldwide regularly attend worship services. [128] Reasons for inactivity can include lifestyle issues and problems with social integration. [129] Activity rates tend to vary with age, and disengagement occurs most frequently between age 16 and 25. A majority of less active members return to church activity later in life. [130] Former Latter-day Saints who seek to disassociate themselves from the religion are often referred to as ex-Mormons. Members of sects that broke with the LDS Church over the issue of polygamy have become known as fundamentalist Mormons; these groups differ from mainstream Mormonism primarily in their belief in and practice of plural marriage. There are thought to be between 20,000 and 60,000 members of fundamentalist sects, (0.1-0.4 percent of Mormons), with roughly half of them practicing polygamy. [131] There are a number of fundamentalist sects, the largest two being the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS Church) and the Apostolic United Brethren (AUB). In addition to plural marriage, some of these groups also practice a form of Christian communalism known as the law of consecration or the United Order. The LDS Church seeks to distance itself from all such polygamous groups, excommunicating their members if discovered practicing or teaching it, [132] and today a majority of Mormon fundamentalists have never been members of the LDS Church. Liberal Mormons, also known as Progressive Mormons, take an interpretive approach to LDS teachings and scripture. [127] They look to the scriptures for spiritual guidance, but may not necessarily believe the teachings to be literally or uniquely true. For liberal Mormons, revelation is a process through which God gradually brings fallible human beings to greater understanding. [134] Liberal Mormons place doing good and loving fellow human beings above the importance of believing correctly. [135] In a separate context, members of small progressive breakaway groups have also adopted the label. Cultural Mormons are individuals who may not believe in certain doctrines or practices of the institutional LDS Church yet identify as member of the Mormon ethnic identity. [136][127][137] Usually this is a result of having been raised in the LDS faith, or as having converted and spent a large portion of one’s life as an active member of the LDS Church. [138] Cultural Mormons may or may not be actively involved with the LDS church. In some cases they may not be members of the LDS Church. Main articles: Mormonism and Mormon cosmology. Mormons have a scriptural canon consisting of the Bible (both Old and New Testaments), the Book of Mormon, and a collection of revelations and writings by Joseph Smith known as the Doctrine and Covenants and Pearl of Great Price. Mormons, however, have a relatively open definition of scripture. As a general rule, anything spoken or written by a prophet, while under inspiration, is considered to be the word of God. [139] Thus, the Bible, written by prophets and apostles, is the word of God, so far as it is translated correctly. The Book of Mormon is also believed to have been written by ancient prophets, and is viewed as a companion to the Bible. By this definition, the teachings of Smith’s successors are also accepted as scripture, though they are always measured against, and draw heavily from the scriptural canon. Mormons see Jesus Christ as the premier figure of their religion. Mormons believe in “a friendly universe”, governed by a God whose aim it is to bring his children to immortality and eternal life. [142] Mormons have a unique perspective on the nature of God, the origin of man, and the purpose of life. For instance, Mormons believe in a pre-mortal existence where people were literal spirit children of God, [143] and that God presented a plan of salvation that would allow his children to progress and become more like him. The plan involved the spirits receiving bodies on earth and going through trials in order to learn, progress, and receive a “fulness of joy”. [143] The most important part of the plan involved Jesus, the eldest of God’s children, coming to earth as the literal Son of God, to conquer sin and death so that God’s other children could return. According to Mormons, every person who lives on earth will be resurrected, and nearly all of them will be received into various kingdoms of glory. [144] To be accepted into the highest kingdom, a person must fully accept Christ through faith, repentance, and through ordinances such as baptism and the laying on of hands. A Latter Day Saint confirmation c. ? According to Mormons, a deviation from the original principles of Christianity, known as the Great Apostasy, began not long after the ascension of Jesus Christ. [146] It was marked with the corruption of Christian doctrine by Greek and other philosophies, [147] with followers dividing into different ideological groups. [148] Mormons claim the martyrdom of the Apostles[149] led to a loss of Priesthood authority to administer the church and its ordinances. [150] Mormons believe that God restored the early Christian church through Joseph Smith. In particular, Mormons believe that angels such as Peter, James, John, John the Baptist, Moses, and Elijah appeared to Smith and others and bestowed various priesthood authorities on them. Mormons believe that their church is the “only true and living church” because of the divine authority restored through Smith. Mormons self-identify as being Christian, [151] while many Christians, particularly evangelical Protestants, disagree with this view. [152] Mormons view other religions as having portions of the truth, doing good works, and having genuine value. The LDS Church has a top-down hierarchical structure with a president-prophet dictating revelations for the whole church. Lay Mormons are also believed to have access to inspiration, and are encouraged to seek their own personal revelations. [154] Mormons see Joseph Smith’s First Vision as proof that the heavens are open, and that God answers prayers. They place considerable emphasis on “asking God” to find out if something is true. Most Mormons do not claim to have had heavenly visions like Smith’s in response to prayers, but feel that God talks to them in their hearts and minds through the Holy Ghost. Though Mormons have some beliefs that are considered strange in a modernized world, they continue to hold onto their beliefs because they feel God has spoken to them. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
  • Region of Origin: US
  • Framing: Unframed
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Size Type/Largest Dimension: Medium (Up to 10\
  • Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  • Date of Creation: 1930-1939
  • Color: Black & White
  • Subject: Architecture & Cityscape
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print
  • Type: Photograph

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