Slavery Era Florida Rare 1860s CDV Photo White Woman, Dau, Black Boy Slave

Slavery Era Florida Rare 1860s CDV Photo White Woman, Dau, Black Boy Slave

Slavery Era Florida Rare 1860s CDV Photo White Woman, Dau, Black Boy Slave

CDV is 4″ x 2.5″ and in very good antique condition, with that light discoloration streak. The boy’s face and collar have darkening to them.. I could be wrong, but it looks intentional, as if somebody tried to make him appear a little less obvious in the photo! A fascinating image, one I have never seen before. It was photographed by Samuel P. Burgert’s “Actino” photo car. Burgert operated in Florida, mostly Jacksonville, from the 1860s, possibly earlier, to at least the 1890s. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “jack_mord” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Antique: Yes
  • Photo Type: CDV
  • Color: Black & White
  • Date of Creation: 1860-1869
  • Image Color: Black & White
  • Original/Licensed Reprint: Original
  • Subject: Ethnic
  • Type: Photograph
  • Format: Carte de Visite (CDV)
  • Year of Production: 1860
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print
  • Theme: Cultures & Ethnicities, Social History
  • Time Period Manufactured: Vintage & Antique (Pre-1940)
  • Production Technique: Albumen Print
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

1926 original Jackson Barnett Creek Indian vintage photo Oklahoma Muscogee

1926 original Jackson Barnett Creek Indian vintage photo Oklahoma Muscogee

1926 original Jackson Barnett Creek Indian vintage photo Oklahoma Muscogee

A VINTAGE ORIGINAL APPROXIMATELY 6 1/2 x 8 1/2 INCH PHOTO FROM 1926 OF JACKSON BARNETT CREEK INDIAN AND THE RICHEST INDIAN IN THE WORLD. This story starts in the early 1850s near Muskogee, Oklahoma with the birth of Jackson Barnett. Jackson’s father, Siah Barnett, was a mixed-blood Creek Indian connected to the prominent Barnett family. Jackson’s mother, “Thlesothle”, was a mostly full-blood Creek Indian. Jackson’s father and mother both belonged to the Tuckabatchee tribal town. Jackson was said to be a great lover of horses when young. It is said that sometime during his adolescence he was thrown off a horse and hit his head. This trauma apparently caused Jackson some damage which affected his future mental development. He evidently did not emotionally and intellectually develop well. He was described as having the mind of a child. By the mid 1850s Siah and Thlesothle had separated and sometime after Siah and his new wife Mary migrated much further southwest near the town of Bryant in Okmulgee county. Jackson lived with and around his mother (who had remarried), his half-brother Tecumseh Andrew, and other maternal kin as was the traditional Indian custom. It is said that sometimes he would visit and stay with cousins near Humboldt, Kansas. Jackson worked for many years for John Leecher (his uncle), the owner of a ferry near Muskogee on the Arkansas River. Jackson’s half-brother Tecumseh also worked on Leecher’s ferry. Meanwhile his father Siah, his uncle Jim, and James Fife operated a store near Bryant (dates unknown) near Bryant in southwestern Okmulgee county. It can only be assumed that during some of these trips Siah would visit with his son. In late June 1891 while operating the ferry Jackson’s brother Tecumseh fell into the river and drowned. Word of Tecumseh’s death eventually spread to relatives in Kansas and apparently the Barnetts at Bryant. It is said that Siah Barnett decided that he would go to Muskogee and bring Jackson back with him to Bryant. When Jackson came to the Bryant neighborhood he lived with his half-siblings and cousins. Eventually his relatives built him a cabin but many times he would prefer to stay in the woods even in his increasing age. While Jackson would by choice or nature not take care of himself like a “normal” person he evidently was extremely resilient and healthy for he lived to a ripe age. The relatives no doubt felt a bit ashamed of their “strange” kin but still they cared enough to keep food and fire wood in his cabin if he needed it. By the time of the Dawes Enrollment in 1899 his relatives probably filled out the application for him. When it came to select an allotment Jackson refused to make a selection and an arbitrary allotment in Creek county was made for him. Jackson was declared legally incompetent by the Indian officials and a guardian was appointed to handle his affairs. His guardian allowed an oil company to drill on his allotment for oil and it was on this allotment that Jackson’s future fortune would spring in 1912. Muskogee Times Democrat, Feb. GUSHER COMES IN WHILE CREEK IS LOOSE IN WOODS. Cushing Allotment Develops 14,000 Barrel Well Today — Owner Demented. Lives in a Cabin Near Henryetta, Where Relatives Take Food and Fuel, Which Are His Only Wants. When Jackson Barnett, a demented Creek Indian, is running wild in the woods of Okmulgee county, down near Henryetta, the Gypsy Oil Company today brought in a 14,000 barrel oil well on Barnett’s allotment in the Cushing Field. A Telegram received at the United States Indian Agency here today brought the information that the gusher had been brought in on the Barnett allotment in the S2 of the SE4 of section 5-17-12. The drillers are unable to control the gusher, the telegram says, and oil is flowing from the well into a creek. Portrait photo of JacksonBarnett is a fullblood Creek. He has been declared an incompetent. He is not able to care for his property, his mind is deranged, and he lives in a hut in the woods near Henryetta. He roams through the woods, living on herbs and bark, and what game he can kill. All he wants is to be left alone to live his life his own way. Relatives, it is said, let him wander, and always keep a supply of food and fuel in his cabin. While he is alive the government is keeping his property intact and investing his surplus wealth. [Muskogee Times Democrat, May 10, 1917]. ALLEN IS OPPOSED TO LIBERTY LOAN? May 10-(Special)- Carl J. The cash is idle in the sub-treasury of the United Sates but there is some doubt here about Indian Commissioner and R. Allen approving the loan. It is suggested that Allen may not regard it as a safe investment. [Muskogee Daily Phoenix, June 8, 1917]. OKMULGEE, June 7-(Special) Application has been made to the department of the interior by Carl J. [Muskogee Times-Democrat, July 25, 1919]. In addition to being a restricted Indian, Mr. Barnett’s affairs are looked after by a guardian, which made the matter an extremely technical one. He is possessed of a fortune estimated at more than a million dollars, which was derived from oil royalties principally. He is unmarried and has no relatives. He is a member of the church receiving the donation and lives a very simple life with few wants or desires. [Muskogee Daily Phoenix, September 7, 1919]. Jackson Barnett’s Next Gift Goes to Brother Who Fed Him When Poor. Cameron, former Muskogee preacher, is pastor. This is a gift to the church by Jackson Barnett, wealthy Creek Indian, whose income is so large form oil royalty in the Cushing pool, that he will never be able to spend it during a lifetime. Barnett is a member of the church and wanted to make a contribution for a new church building. Through the field agent he asked to be allowed to make the gift, and it was approved by the department. While he has no desire to die a poor man, Barnett is developing into a sort of philanthropist. But he cannot make any useless gifts, because he is a restricted Indian and all of his expenditures are checked by the Indian superintendent at Muskogee. Jackson now has another gift which he will submit to the department for their approval. Dave Barnett is an old-time full-blood with long gray hair. He has not been fortunate in getting oil on his land, and he and his daughter are making a meager living from a hilly farm. Before oil was found on Jackson’s land, his brother Dave fed and clothed him and took care of him when he was ill and in need. Now Jackson wants to do something for his brother. He wants him to have enough to live on during his life time, and wants to see that Dave’s daughter receives a good education. Dave was in Muskogee last week with Henry Harwell, postmaster at Bryant. He said that Jackson wanted to do something for him, and he came to ascertain the attitude of the department. He was told that if he was really a brother of Jackson, and his brother wished it, the gift would probably be approved. He is now planning a trip here and call on the Indian officials, who are custodians of.. Jackson’s home built by his guardian Carl J. O’Hornett near Henryetta, Oklahoma. [Muskogee Times Democrat, January 31, 1920]. RICH INDIAN DISAPPEARS WITH “BRIDE”. Jackson Barnett and “Kansas City Woman” Attempt to Get Married. Officers combing state for couple. Jackson Barnett, millionaire Indian incompetent and 70 years old, is trying to get married. In fact, he may be married at this time, although latest reports received at Muskogee indicate that the rich old man is still at large and single, despite his strenuous effort to break into the ranks of the benedicts. Reports said hem disappeared from his home at Henryetta with a woman companion either early Friday or late Thursday. Comb State for Him. Up to a late hour Saturday afternoon, the government had not been able to lay it’s hand on Jackson and his near-bride, but the entire east-side of the state was being combed in an effort to locate the marrying old couple. Reports at the Indian agency from Holdenville and Okemah were that Jackson and his companion, had been unable to secure a license at either of those places but that probably would try at other places before despairing. They know the old man won’t last much longer and they have put this woman up to the trick so they come before the government with a claim on Jackson’s millions and compromise for a few thousand dollars. First reports of the attempt of the old couple to get married were received at the Indian agency late Friday. A telephone message from the field clerk at Okemah was to the effect that Jackson and his companion, “a middle-aged woman from Kansas City, ” were trying to get a marriage license from the county clerk court. The court clerk has applied for information to the field clerk, who had put his foot down on the securing of the license. Jackson was asked how long he had known the woman and why he wanted to get married. Known Her Only a Day. “Oh, I got acquainted yesterday, ” he is reported to have said, and I liked her pretty well, so though we’d get married. The next call for help was from Holdenville early Saturday. The field clerk was told to notify other field clerks in neighboring counties and to spread the news among the other county officials in an effort to prevent the marriage. Strain has notified Carl J. O’Hornett, Jackson’s guardian at Henryetta, who is scouring the country to locate his ward. Other’s have also been put on the couple’s trail. Barnett is about 70 years of age and has never married. [Muskogee Times Democrat, February 23, 1920]. BARNETT COIN IS TIED UP BY COURT ORDER. With Indian Missing, Williams Issues Injunction Against Charity Plan. Kidnaped’ again by persistent’lover. The hearing for a permanent injunction was set for Saturday morning. Disbursal of the million and a half dollars as proposed is illegal and can not be carried through, insists the surety company, which is bondsmen for the guardian, Carl J. O’Hornett of Henryetta and for David Buddruss, cashier at the Indian Agency. Also named in the petition as a defendant is Gabe E. Parker, superintendent for the Five Civilized Tribes. To Protect Bond Company. “While this suit was filed simply to protect us, ” said Judge N. Maxey, attorney for the complainant, we have been unable to find any authority in law for such an expedition of funds. If the courts decide against us, then we are protected at any rate. Officials at Washington now are revisiting former estimates of the amount to be expended on the proposed charities, according to Mr. With the total funds estimated at a million and a half, it is said that the expenditures will be well under a million dollars – if they are made. Gifts Total Million and Half. Tentative plans call for the erection of an Indian hospital at Henryetta with endowment of the institution. Gifts to churches and other charities bring the amount up close to a million and a half dollars. Woman Gave Two Names. 23 – (Special) Where is Jackson Barnett? Believed to have been “kidnaped” Saturday night for the second time by a woman who gives her name on some occasion as Ida Bartell of Oklahoma City and on others as Mrs. Lowe of Kansas City, the aged Indian millionaire’s whereabouts today are veiled in obscurity. According to reports from Barnett’s farm six miles from here, the persistent “suitor” who failed in her first attempt to get away with him about three weeks ago, called again about 8:30 o’clock Saturday night, invited the incompetent old man to “take a ride” and whisked him away. The last that was seen of the high-powered car was when it plunged into a swirl of dust with its hood pointing north. Sheriffs and other officers over all of eastern Oklahoma and surrounding states were immediately notified but no trace of the “elopers” has been found. It is thought that the automobile was a service car from Okmulgee but efforts to locate it have been futile. The first alleged attempt of the Bartell-Lowe woman to marry Barnett was frustrated when then pair drove up to the courthouse in Holdenville about three weeks ago to seek a license. A crowd recognised Barnett and the pair abandoned their effort to get the license. [Muskogee Times Democrat, February 25, 1920]. Jackson Barnett and Wife as Photographed at Coffeyville. Jackson Barnett, millionaire Creek Indian of Henryetta, and Mrs. Anna Laura Lowe Barnett, who were married at Coffeyville, Kansas, Monday after a sensational “development”, posed for the photographer at the request of the Times-Democrat correspondent yesterday morning, and the result is shown above. When the picture was taken both Barnett and his wife were clad in nobby leather coats which they wore when they left Henryetta in a motor car. The rakish tilt of Barnett’s hat and the Barney Oldfield slant of his cigar would indicate that he is anything but displeased with his lot. Guardian O’Hornett Finally Gets Conference with Barnett and His Bride; Result of Secret Meeting Not Disclosed; Pair Still in Coffeyville. 25-(Special)-Overcoming the objections of Mrs. Anna Laura Lowe Barnett, bride since Monday of his 68-year-old Indian ward, Carl J. O’Hornett, Guardian of Jackson Barnett, gained entrance Wednesday morning into the honeymoon suite at a local hotel and held a conference with the elopers, whose sensational dash for the Kansas line Sunday night and the subsequent marriage Monday morning made more than one officer wonder were they got through. O’Hornett had been denied admittance to the room of his ward Tuesday night by the bride, but Wednesday morning, accompanied by his attorneys, Nott and Welch of Coffeyville, he succeeded in negotiating with the Indian. The conference was conducted through attorneys McGugin and Keith, also of Coffeyville, who were hastily engaged by Mrs. He did not succeed in seeing old Barnett alone as he had desired. Barnett hurled defiance at her husband’s guardian and urged him to allow them to return to the Barnett home near Henryetta without molestation. Otherwise, she declared, they would not return. No answer to the ultimatum has been made by O’Hornett, it is understood. Meanwhile the bridal couple are seemingly enjoying themselves despite the virtual surveillance to which they are subjected by the Coffeyville police and secret service men. They are, however, allowed their freedom and apparently have no though of worry. Muskogee Dailey Phoenix, Feb. BARNETT’S BRIDE, REVOLVER IN HAND, BLOCKS KIDNAPERS. Leap Year’ Wife of Millionaire Indian Stands Careful, Defiant Guard Over Spouse. Millionaire is’broke’ but funds still keep coming. Officials Think Some Interested Third Party Is Financing Barnett’s Defence – Officers Here Mum. 26 – An attempt to kidnap Jackson Barnett was frustrated here late this afternoon through quick action on the part of his wife, according to employees at the hotel where the couple are living. They said that while Mrs. Barnett was using telephone on another floor, a large gray touring car containing two young men drone to the curb outside a window where Barnett could be seen sunning himself. Men in the car held up a fish pole and pointing toward the river beyond the city they attracted the attention of the Indian and as he was about to join them one of the party rushed into the hotel to meet him. The wife appeared on the scene and shoving her husband into his room turned on the intruders with a pistol. Third attempt to steal him. This is a said to be the third attempt to kidnap or entice Barnett away from the hotel. Her attorneys are said to have employed private detectives from Kansas City to guard the couple. In a statement dictated to a porter Mrs. Barnett said: Our home is in our apartment at the hotel. I have the right to defend that home against any invader. We are through with Oklahoma, Kansas is our home, and in Coffeyville, if possible. Oklahoma refused us our rights as American citizens and Kansas accepted us, therefore we, will continue to make Kansas our home. Barnett’s attorneys left the city today and, it is said, has gone to Wichita, Kansas, to apply to the federal court for an injunction to prevent Carl J. O’Hornett of Henryetta, Okla. The action is being held in abeyance pending the arrival here of certified copies of the federal and state court records from Muskogee showing Barnett has been adjudged incompetent. Up to Kansas Jury. Harold McGugin, one of the attorneys for Mrs. Barnett, today said he expected to institute legal proceedings should federal authorities insist on annulment proceedings. His contention is that the Oklahoma federal and state court decisions are not binding on the question of Barnett’s competency, but that a Kansas jury must pass on the matter before the marriage can be set aside unless Barnett is taken from the Kansas jurisdiction. The attorney said if Barnett should be kidnaped or enticed into Oklahoma then the decision of that state would apply. If the question of sanity becomes an issue it is expected both sides will bring alienists from all over the country to give testimony as to Barnett’s mental fitness. Barnett herself tonight denied a rumor that her husband was without funds to fight the annulment proceedings. Federal officials believe the… For background information about Anna Laura Lowe see this scandelous Confidential Report dated April 28, 1920. Muskogee Daily Phoenix, Aug. JACKSON BARNETT IS’STEPPIN’ OUT,’ HIS WIFIE AVERS. Jackson Barnett,’millionaire’ Creek Indian is’stepping out. He has been playing the ponies at the Windsor races at Detroit Mich. And now his wife, Anna Laura Barnett, who was accused of kidnapping him when they ran away to Coffeyville, Kans. Word of Jackson’s mingling among the high steppers at Detroit reached Muskogee yesterday in the form of an interview with Mrs. According to the statement credited to Mrs. We are going to have a swimming pool, a garage and a stable. We have already ordered a special made automobile. The house will be of stone and have a red tile roof. Jackson and I have been living long enough in a 30-acre homestead and in an ordinary cottage, according to the interview. About the only trouble with “Chief” Barnett as husband, according to his wife, who says she is superlatively fond of him, is that he insists on walking Indian fashion (single file) when we go down the avenue together. Tell of Indian Traits. He drops into his old habit often. “Chief” refuses also to be henpecked, she said. Silence, eternal silence, is his forte whenever his plans are interfered with. Barnett, but I seem to do as the chief wishes. Jackson in field near Muskogee, 1922. Jackson on his newly bought farm. On West Okmulgee ave. Portrait photo of Jackson and Laura. Portrait photo of Jackson. Muskogee Daily Phoenix, Feb. GETS PART OF INTEREST FROM WIFE’S TRUST FUND. Jackson Barnett yesterday voluntarily stripped himself of most of his wealth. This sum is given to the Baptist home mission society of New York, which had administration control over Bacone and the Murrow home. Announcement of the agreement was made in Washington yesterday. It was reached at a conference of the Barnetts with Charles H. Burke, commissioner of Indian affairs, Victor Locke, superintendent of the Five Civilized Tribes and A. At His Own Request. The various trust agreements involved were made, according to Mr. Burke, “because designing persons” sought not only to gain control of his property now but were scheming to make claims after his death. Bacone college now will have the largest endowment of any state educational institution, Dr. Weeks superintendent, said last night. He had been awaiting for several weeks announcement of the agreement which was the primary purpose of the Barnetts’ visit to Washington. Disposal of Barnett’s fortune was arranged at his request to keep it out of the hands of these “designing persons” when he dies, Burke stated in Washington. Barnett, who has no living relatives with legal or moral claims upon him, according to Burkes’s announcement, has been in the public eye more prominently perhaps than any other Indian, not only because of his great wealth but because of his sensational marriage about three (sic) years ago when his bride is alleged to have kidnaped him from his guardian in Oklahoma and taken him to Kansas, where they were married. It is explained that the gift to the society, which will go to its permanent endowment fund, is not a denominational or church donation but is made solely because the organization has administrative control over Bacone college and the Murrow home. To Balk Varied Schemers. According to Commissioner Burke, Jackson’s wealth seems to have been a magnet attracting designing persons of every character from all parts of the country. Indian department official have been called upon to devote much time and energy in the thwarting of impossible and fantastic schemes to secure his wealth. “Definite knowledge has recently come, ” Burke said, to the Indian office officials that the grafters are not content with making encroachments on this estate during the lifetime of its owner, but have gone so far as to hunt up persons who will claim to be his heirs upon his death and have secured from them contracts for 50 percent of their interest in his estate and which claims will be prosecuted when Jackson Barnett dies. [Muskogee Times Democrat, May 31, 1923]. But This Time It’s In California Where They Intend to Remain. Barnett in the recent settlement of Barnett’s estate. Barnett of a palatial residence in Los Angeles. Barnett acted entirely without the knowledge of the Indian office. Immediately after the distribution of Jackson Barnett’s fortune in Washington last winter, Mrs. Barnett went immediately to California, leaving her husband in Muskogee. She made one or two other trips to the Pacific coast before packing up the family trinkets and departing for a long stay. Barnett confirms rumors that the Barnett’s intend to reside just as far from Oklahoma and it’s probate courts as they can get. O’Hornett is attacking in the federal courts the distribution of Barnett’s fortune on the ground that he as guardian was consulted and did not approve the settlement. By his court actions the guardian would have paid into his hands the more than a million dollars involved in the Washington settlement under which Bacone College and Mrs. Barnett were the chief beneficiaries. [Muskogee Daily Phoenix, May 30, 1934]. Jackson Barnett, Whom Oklahoma Enriched but Couldn’t Educate. Dies in Palatial Home; Not a Cent to Woman Who “Kidnapped” Him. Barnett Found Jackson, 70, Living As Though Penniless. When Oil Was Found on His Land, Indian “Became Shuttlecock in Game of Battledore”. Jackson Barnett lived for 70 years in his shack near Henryetta with his dogs and ponies, and until he became wealthy was allowed to shift for himself and eke out an existence as best he could. With the discovery of oil on his apparently worthless land in the Cushing field, however, Barnett became, as described by Federal Judge John C. Knox of New York, a shuttlecock in a game of battledore in which the stakes were high. ” Known as the “world’s richest Indian Barnett was solicited and importuned for donations, kidnapped, and married by an adventuress, and harassed and annoyed by his attorneys. [Muskogee Daily Phoenix, June 3, 1934]. BARNETT’S DEATH CLOSES ONE STORY AND OPENS SECOND. Jackson Lived Alone Near Henryetta Until Gold Rushed From Scrubby Acreage. Battle for Indian Millions Just Starting, a Heirs Flock to Agency Here. The death of Jackson Barnett last week brought to a sudden close one of the strangest and at the same time one of the sordidly romantic stories in the history of the rich Creek nation and began another. Jackson Barnett was “the world’s richest Indian”. For 70 years Jackson lived among his dogs and ponies in a log cabin shack near Henryetta. Unkept, unlettered, dirty, the millionaire Creek was considered a “scrub” Indian, unable to meet the requirements of the Creek tribe. An outcast, Jackson lived alone until “black gold” poured out of his allotment. It was there that Anna Laura Lowe, a Kansas oil promoter, found him, and rushed the millionaire “scrub” across the Kansas state line to marry him. Lowe is reported to have made several trips to Barnett’s cabin to woo the aged Creek incompetent. Jackson later said that he refused several times to marry Mrs. Lowe, an attractive white widow, because she called when it was getting dark. Against that marriage the Indian bureau cried in protest. They insisted that Jackson was incompetent, did not understand the intent of marriage vows, and that the extent of his participation in the marriage ceremony had been a grunt and a grin. [Muskogee Dailey Phoenix, June 8, 1934]. Jackson Barnett Buried In Hollywood Cemetery, Far From Native Plains. June 7 – AP – Far from the rolling plains of his native Oklahoma, Jackson Barnett, reputedly the world’s wealthiest Indian, was buried today in Hollywood cemetery. Frank Gibson, and Episcopalian minister, conducted brief services. (Thanks to Allan Ellenburger). Accompanying the body to the final resting place was Mrs. Anna Laura Lowe Barnett, who Wednesday won her court battle to prevent the government from sending the aged Creek’s body to Oklahoma for burial. Barnett, whose marriage to the Indian recently was annulled in federal court, said she would prosecute her fight to obtain a widow’s share of the estate. Barnett died May 29 of a heart ailment. He was 92 years of age. Funeral services were held May 31, but the government halted burial plans, insisting his body be sent to his birth place for interment among his tribal ancestors. Barnett obtained a restraining order preventing the undertaker from sending the body to Oklahoma. Because Jackson and Anna’s marriage was annulled shortly before Jackson’s death Anna then had no effective legal claim to the estate as Jackson’s “widow”. Because of this, Jackson’s estate then fell to his natural heirs. The fight over Jackson’s began in the local courts but because of the growing claims to the estate the case was removed to the Federal Court of the Eastern District of Oklahoma in Muskogee presided by Judge Robert L. Immediately after Jackson’s death the local and Federal Court began to be deluged with legitimate and phony claims to the estate. The taking of depositions from over 600 claimants and witnesses around Oklahoma and even other states began in March 1935 and ended in February 1937. The trial to determine the heirs and live in-court testimony began in March 1937 and ended in June 1938. Throughout this time Jackson’s legitimate nieces, nephews, cousins had the tremendous task of countering the many phony claims by filing legal briefs and presenting witnesses to the contrary. In the beginning each individual legitimate niece, nephew and cousin was presenting largely similar and complementary claims but eventually they decided to join forces and present a united claim to help counter the illegitimate claims. The most persistent phony claim was from a Negro woman who claimed to have been married to Jackson and had a child. Others were from supposed cousins in Tennessee and Kentucky. Even before Jackson’s death it was known to the government officials that there were many unscrupulous people patiently waiting for the day Jackson died when they would swoop in and make their “claim” to the estate. Also, some persons with the Barnett surname were approached and induced by lawyers to try and cash in on Jackson’s fortune. Finally, after 5 years of taking testimony and depositions from real and alleged relatives who lived close and far and legal maneuvers from attorneys and government officials Judge Robert L. Williams came to a decision. On December 16, 1939 he filed his opinion in the case and on January 2, 1940 decreed and awarded half of the estate to Jackson’s paternal nieces and nephews and the other half to his maternal cousins. The court’s judgment was then appealed by the losing parties to the circuit court and later Supreme Court to be tried but in both cases the initial court ruling was held valid, without further trial. Department of the Interior until 1920. Jackson was the son of a mixed Creek farmer, Siah Barnett, and a Creek woman named Thlesothle. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by his mother’s relatives. He suffered a head injury after falling from a horse as a young man. As a result of the Curtis Act of 1898, Barnett received title to 160 acres (65 ha) in Creek County in 1903, but the land was administered in trust by the Department of the Interior. During the same decade, Barnett was a supporter of the Crazy Snake Rebellion. With the discovery of oil on Barnett’s lands in 1912, a series of court actions by interested parties litigated the control of Barnett’s trust. Barnett was declared incompetent and denied access to his affairs simply because he only spoke the Muscogee Creek language and not English. Barnett was permitted a modest income and was installed in a house near Henryetta. The couple had to marry in Kansas after a marriage license was denied in Oklahoma. Barnett’s guardians were unable to annul the marriage and the hospital plans were never pursued. Instead, the trust was divided between Anna Barnett and Bacone Indian College. The Barnetts moved to Los Angeles and bought a mansion on Wilshire Boulevard, where Jackson passed his time directing traffic at a nearby intersection. Legal actions continued from 1923 to 1929, which provoked congressional hearings on the role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in establishing and administering the Barnett trust and others like it. The hearings led to criticism of BIA administrator Charles H. Burke’s actions, and during the 1930s, to the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. In 1927 Barnett v. Equitable again proclaimed Jackson Barnett incompetent in federal court. In March 1934 another federal ruling annulled the Barnetts’ marriage and Anna Barnett’s rights to Jackson’s trust on the grounds that Jackson had been “kidnapped” by a woman of suspect moral character, but allowed Anna to act as Jackson’s caretaker. Jackson Barnett died on 29 May 1934 of natural causes: allegations that Anna had poisoned him were found to be false. Anna was finally evicted from the Wilshire Boulevard residence after four years, even though she had gained significant support from Los Angeles society, [5] including Los Angeles District Attorney Burton Fitts and California Governor Frank Merriam. [4] In 1982 the Jackson Barnett No. 11 Oil Well, the most productive well on Barnett’s lands, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Muscogee, also known as the Muskogee, Muscogee Creek, Creek, Mvskokvlke, or the Muscogee Creek Confederacy pronounced m? Lgi in the Muscogee language, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. [2] Their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Like the Cherokees in northeastern Alabama, most of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their original lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between roughly 1767 and 1821[4] and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers. The great majority of Seminoles were also later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches, bands and tribes, except one, are all closely related variants called Muscogee, Mvskoke and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns (suburbs) centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids. Some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than later colonial European-American cities. Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, and Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship, hunting, and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century. The Muscogee were the first Native Americans officially considered by the early United States government to be “civilized” under George Washington’s civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the “Five Civilized Tribes”, because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were already based on an (at minimum) 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa’s interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, actively resisted European-American encroachment. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson then seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks. The result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, and Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, and the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Rise of the Muscogee Confederacy. British, French, and Spanish expansion. Muscogee and Choctaw land dispute (1790). State of Muskogee and William Bowles. Pre-removal (late 18th-early 19th centuries). A comet, earthquakes, and Tecumseh (1811). Treaties of Indian Springs. American Civil War (1861). Indian Appropriations Act of 1871. Federally recognized tribes in Oklahoma. Federally recognized tribes in Alabama. Etowah Mound C, was a part of a precontact Mississippian and ancestral Muscogee site occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people from c. At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. [7] Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. [7] During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. The Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to urban centers and regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, and flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD. The early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee, [8] Georgia, and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River, eventually settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River. [9] It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Ogeeches, Wapoos, Santees, Yamafees, Utinas, Icofans, Paticans and others, until at length they had extirpated them. At the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, many political centers of the Mississippians were already in decline, or abandoned. [11] The region is best described as a collection of moderately sized native chiefdoms (such as the Coosa chiefdom on the Coosa River) interspersed with completely autonomous villages and tribal groups. The late Mississippian culture is what the earliest Spanish explorers encountered, beginning on April 2, 1513, with Juan Ponce de León’s Florida landing and the 1526 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón expedition in South Carolina. Precontact Muscogees did not have the concept of private property; everything was shared. Similarly, they did not have a structured government; decisions were made by consensus. Both of these gradually vanished, the first because the Native Americans wished items the Europeans had to sell, such as muskets, or alcohol. [12] The second disappeared partly because the Spanish pressed them to say whom they could negotiate with; government by consensus was unknown in Europe at that time. Hernando de Soto and his men burn Mabila, after a surprise attack by Chief Tuskaloosa and his people; 1540, painting by Herb Roe, 2008. Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first expedition into the interior of the North American continent. [14] From 1540 to 1543, de Soto explored through present-day Florida and Georgia, and then westward into the Alabama and Mississippi area. The areas were inhabited by historic Muscogee Native Americans. De Soto brought with him a well-equipped army. He attracted many recruits from a variety of backgrounds who joined his quest for riches in the Americas. As the de Soto expedition’s brutalities became known to the indigenous peoples, they decided to defend their territory. The Battle of Mabila was a turning point for the de Soto venture; the battle “broke the back” of the Spanish campaign, and the expedition never fully recovered. De Soto’s expedition, especially the new infectious diseases carried by the Europeans, caused a high rate of fatalities among the indigenous peoples. These losses were exacerbated by the Indian slave trade that flourished in the Southeast during the 17th and 18th centuries. As the survivors and descendants regrouped, the Muscogee or Creek Confederacy arose, which was a loose alliance of Muskogee-speaking peoples. The Muscogee lived in autonomous villages in river valleys throughout present-day Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, speaking several related Muskogean languages. Hitchiti was the most widely spoken in present-day Georgia; Hitchiti speakers were the first to be displaced by white settlers, and the language died out. Muskogee was spoken from the Chattahoochee to the Alabama River. Koasati (Coushatta) and Alibamu were spoken in the upper Alabama River basin and along parts of the Tennessee River. The Muscogee were a confederacy of tribes consisting of Yuchi, Koasati, Alabama, Coosa, Tuskeegee, Coweta, Cusseta, Chehaw (Chiaha), Hitchiti, Tuckabatchee, Oakfuskee, and many others. The basic social unit was the town (idalwa). Abihka, Coosa, Tuckabutche, and Coweta are the four “mother towns” of the Muscogee Confederacy. [16] Traditionally, the Cusseta and Coweta bands are considered the earliest members of the Muscogee Nation. [2] The Lower Towns, along the Chattahoochee, Flint, and Apalachicola rivers, and further east along the Ocmulgee and Oconee rivers, were Coweta, Cusseta (Kasihta, Cofitachiqui), Upper Chehaw (Chiaha), Hitchiti, Oconee, Ocmulgee, Okawaigi, Apalachee, Yamasee (Altamaha), Ocfuskee, Sawokli, and Tamali. The protohistoric King Site, occupied during the mid-1500s. The Upper Towns, located on the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Alabama rivers, were Tuckabatchee, Abhika, Coosa (Kusa; the dominant people of East Tennessee and North Georgia during the Spanish explorations), Itawa (original inhabitants of the Etowah Indian Mounds), Hothliwahi (Ullibahali), Hilibi, Eufaula, Wakokai, Atasi, Alibamu, Coushatta (Koasati; they had absorbed the Kaski/Casqui and the Tali), and Tuskegee (“Napochi” in the de Luna chronicles). The most important leader in Muscogee society was the mico or village chief. Micos led warriors in battle and represented their villages, but held authority only insofar as they could persuade others to agree with their decisions. Micos ruled with the assistance of micalgi or lesser chiefs, and various advisers, including a second-in-charge called the heniha, respected village elders, medicine men, and a tustunnuggee or ranking warrior, the principal military adviser. The yahola or medicine man officiated at various rituals, including providing black drink, used in purification ceremonies. The most important social unit was the clan. Clans organized hunts, distributed lands, arranged marriages, and punished lawbreakers. The authority of the micos was complemented by the clan mothers, mostly women elders. The Muscogee had a matrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into their mother’s clan, and inheritance was through the maternal line. The Wind Clan is the first of the clans. The majority of micos have belonged to this clan. Further information: Yamasee War. A raiding party against Spanish missions in Florida passes the Ocmulgee trading post. Britain, France, and Spain all established colonies in the present-day Southeastern woodlands. Spain established Jesuit missions and related settlements to influence Native Americans. The British and the French opted for trade over conversion. In the 17th century, Franciscan friars in Spanish Florida built missions along Apalachee Bay. In 1670 English settlers from Barbados founded Charles Town (Charleston), capital of the new Province of Carolina. The Spanish and their “mission Indians” burned most of the towns along the Chattahoochee after they welcomed Scottish explorer Henry Woodward in 1685. In 1690, the English built a trading post on the Ocmulgee River, known as Ochese-hatchee (creek), where a dozen towns relocated to escape the Spanish and acquire English trade-goods. The name “Creek” most likely derived from Ocheese Creek and broadly applies to all of the Muscogee Confederacy, including the Yuchi and Natchez. In 1704-06, Carolina Governor Col. James Moore led colonial militia and Ochese Creek and Yamasee warriors in raids that destroyed the Spanish missions of the Florida interior. [citation needed] With Florida depopulated, English traders paid other tribes to attack and enslave the Yamasee, leading to the Yamassee War of 1715-17. Yamacraw leader Tomochichi and nephew in 1733. The Ochese Creeks joined the Yamasee, burning trading posts, and raiding back-country settlers, but the revolt ran low on gunpowder and was put down by Carolinian militia and their Cherokee allies. The Yamasee took refuge in Spanish Florida, the Ochese Creeks fled west to the Chattahoochee. French Canadian explorers founded Mobile as the first capital of Louisiana in 1702, and took advantage of the war to build Fort Toulouse at the confluence of the Tallapoosa and Coosa in 1717, trading with the Alabama and Coushatta. Fearing they would come under French influence, the British reopened the deerskin trade with the Lower Creeks, antagonizing the Yamasee, now allies of Spain. The French instigated the Upper Creeks to raid the Lower Creeks. In May 1718, the shrewd Emperor Brim, mico of the powerful Coweta band, invited representatives of Britain, France, and Spain to his village and, in council with Upper and Lower Creek leaders, declared a policy of Muscogee neutrality in their colonial rivalry. That year, the Spaniards built the presidio of San Marcos de Apalache on Apalachee Bay. In 1721, the British built Fort King George at the mouth of the Altamaha River. As the three European imperial powers established themselves along the borders of Muscogee lands, the latter’s strategy of neutrality allowed them to hold the balance of power. Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing. The colony of Georgia was created in 1732; its first settlement, Savannah, was founded the following year, on a river bluff where the Yamacraw, a Yamasee band that remained allies of England, allowed John Musgrove to establish a fur-trading post. His wife Mary Musgrove was the daughter of an English trader and a Muscogee woman from the powerful Wind Clan, half-sister of’Emperor’ Brim. She was the principal interpreter for Georgia’s founder and first Governor Gen. James Oglethorpe, using her connections to foster peace between the Creek Indians and the new colony. [20] The deerskin trade grew, and by the 1750s, Savannah exported up to 50,000 deerskins a year. In 1736, Spanish and British officials established a neutral zone from the Altamaha to the St. Johns River in present-day Florida, guaranteeing Native hunting grounds for the deerskin trade and protecting Spanish Florida from further British encroachment. 1750 a group of Ochese moved to the neutral zone, after clashing with the Muskogee-speaking towns of the Chattahoochee, where they had fled after the Yamasee War. Led by Chief Secoffee (Cowkeeper), they became the center of a new tribal confederacy, the Seminole, which grew to include earlier refugees from the Yamasee War, remnants of the’mission Indians,’ and escaped African slaves. [23] Their name comes from the Spanish word cimarrones, which originally referred to a domestic animal that had reverted to the wild. Cimarrones was used by the Spanish and Portuguese to refer to fugitive slaves-”maroon” emerges linguistically from this root as well-and American Indians who fled European invaders. In the Hitchiti language, which lacked an’r’ sound, it became simanoli, and eventually Seminole. Many Muscogee Creek leaders, after contact with Europeans began, have British names: Alexander McGillivray, Josiah Francis, William McIntosh, Peter McQueen, William Weatherford, William Perryman, and others. These reflect Muscogee women having children with British colonists. For instance, Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins married a Muscogee woman. [24]:9 In Muscogee culture, unmarried Muscogee women had great freedom over their own sexuality compared to European and European-American counterparts. With the exception of McGillivray, mixed-raced Muscogee people did against Muscogee Creek interests, as they understood them[clarification needed]; to the contrary, in many cases, they spearheaded resistance to the British and then American expansion. 7 As put by Claudio Saunt. These offspring of mixed marriages occupied a different position in the economy of the Deep South than did most Creeks and Seminoles. They worked as traders and factors. As Andrew Frank writes, Terms such as mixed-blood and half-breed, which imply racial categories and partial Indianness, betray the ways in which Native peoples determined kinship and identity in the eighteenth- and early-nineteen-century southeast. With the end of the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years’ War) in 1763, France lost its North American empire, and British-American settlers moved inland. Indian discontent led to raids against back-country settlers, and the perception that the royal government favored the Indians and the deerskin trade led many back-country white settlers to join the Sons of Liberty. Fears of land-hungry settlers and need for European manufactured goods led the Muscogee to side with the British, but like many tribes, they were divided by factionalism, and, in general, avoided sustained fighting, preferring to protect their sovereignty through cautious participation. During the American Revolution, the Upper Creeks sided with the British, fighting alongside the Chickamauga (Lower Cherokee) warriors of Dragging Canoe, in the Cherokee-American wars, against white settlers in present-day Tennessee. This alliance was orchestrated by the Coushatta chief Alexander McGillivray, son of Lachlan McGillivray, a wealthy Scottish Loyalist fur-trader and planter, whose properties were confiscated by Georgia. His ex-partner, Scots-Irish Patriot George Galphin, initially persuaded the Lower Creeks to remain neutral, but Loyalist Capt. William McIntosh led a group of pro-British Hitchiti, and most of the Lower Creeks nominally allied with Britain after the 1779 Capture of Savannah. Muscogee warriors fought on behalf of Britain during the Mobile and Pensacola campaigns of 1780-81, where Spain re-conquered British West Florida. Loyalist leader Thomas Brown raised a division of King’s Rangers to contest Patriot control over the Georgia and Carolina interior and instigated Cherokee raids against the North Carolina back-country after the Battle of King’s Mountain. He seized Augusta in March 1780, with the aid of an Upper Creek war-party, but reinforcements from the Lower Creeks and local white Loyalists never came, and Georgia militia led by Elijah Clarke retook Augusta in 1781. [26] The next year an Upper Creek war-party trying to relieve the British garrison at Savannah was routed by Continental Army troops under Gen. After the war ended in 1783, the Muscogee learned that Britain had ceded their lands to the now independent United States. That year, two Lower Creek chiefs, Hopoithle Miko (Tame King) and Eneah Miko (Fat King), ceded 800 square miles (2,100 km2) of land to the state of Georgia. Alexander McGillivray led pan-Indian resistance to white encroachment, receiving arms from the Spanish in Florida to fight trespassers. He also became a wealthy landowner and merchant, owning as many as sixty black slaves. In 1784, he negotiated the Treaty of Pensacola with Spain, recognizing Muscogee control over 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km2) of land claimed by Georgia, and guaranteeing access to the British firm Panton, Leslie & Co. Which controlled the deerskin trade, while making himself an official representative of Spain. [27] In 1786, a council in Tuckabatchee decided to wage war against white settlers on Muscogee lands. War parties attacked settlers along the Oconee River, and Georgia mobilized its militia. McGillivray refused to negotiate with the state that had confiscated his father’s plantations, but President George Washington sent a special emissary, Col. Marinus Willet, who persuaded him to travel to New York City, then the capital of the U. And deal directly with the federal government. In the summer of 1790, McGillivray and 29 other Muscogee chiefs signed the Treaty of New York, on behalf of the’Upper, Middle and Lower Creek and Seminole composing the Creek nation of Indians,’ ceding a large portion of their lands to the federal government and promising to return fugitive slaves, in return for federal recognition of Muscogee sovereignty and promises to evict white settlers. McGillivray died in 1793, and with the invention of the cotton gin white settlers on the Southwestern frontier who hoped to become cotton planters clamored for Indian lands. In 1795, Elijah Clarke and several hundred followers defied the Treaty of New York and established the short-lived Trans-Oconee Republic. In 1790, the Muscogee and Choctaw were in conflict over land near the Noxubee River. The two nations agreed to settle the dispute by ball-play. With nearly 10,000 players and bystanders, the two nations prepared for nearly three months. After a long daylong struggle, the Muscogee won the game. A fight broke out and the two nations fought until sundown with nearly 500 dead and many more wounded. Further information: State of Muskogee. William Augustus Bowles was born into a wealthy Maryland Tory family, enlisting with the Maryland Loyalists Battalion at age 14 and becoming an ensign in the Royal Navy by age 15. He married two wives, one Cherokee and the other a daughter of the Hitchiti Muscogee chieftain William Perryman, and later used this union as the basis for his claim to exert political influence among the Creeks. [29] In 1781, a 17-year-old Bowles led Muscogee forces at the Battle of Pensacola. After seeking refuge in the Bahamas, he travelled to London. In 1799, Bowles formed the State of Muskogee, with the support of the Chattahoochee Creeks and the Seminoles. He established his capital at Miccosuki, a village on the shores of Lake Miccosukee near present-day Tallahassee. It was ruled by Mico Kanache, his father-in-law and strongest ally. Bowles envisioned the State of Muskogee, with its capital at Miccosuki, encompassing large portions of present-day Florida, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, and incorporating the Cherokee, Upper and Lower Creeks, Chickasaw and Choctaw. Bowles’ first act was declaring the 1796 Second Treaty of San Ildefonso, which drew the boundary between the U. And West Florida, null and void, because the Indians were not consulted. He denounced the treaties Alexander McGillivray had negotiated with Spain and the U. Although a Spanish force that set out to destroy Mikosuki got lost in the swamps, a second attempt to take San Marcos ended in disaster. After a European armistice led to the loss of British support, Bowles was discredited. The Seminole signed a peace treaty with Spain. The following year, he was betrayed by Lower Creek supporters of Hawkins at a tribal council. They turned Bowles over to the Spanish, and he died in prison in Havana, Cuba two years later. Further information: Five Civilized Tribes. Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology. George Washington, the first U. President, and Henry Knox, the first U. Secretary of War, proposed a cultural transformation of the Native Americans. [31] Washington believed that Native Americans were equals as individuals but that their society was inferior. He formulated a policy to encourage the “civilizing” process, and it was continued under President Thomas Jefferson. [32] Noted historian Robert Remini wrote, [T]hey presumed that once the Indians adopted the practice of private property, built homes, farmed, educated their children, and embraced Christianity, these Native Americans would win acceptance from white Americans. [34] The Muscogee would be the first Native Americans to be “civilized” under Washington’s six-point plan. The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole would follow the Muscogee efforts to implement Washington’s new policy of civilization. In 1796, Washington appointed Benjamin Hawkins as General Superintendent of Indian Affairs dealing with all tribes south of the Ohio River. He personally assumed the role of principal agent to the Muscogee. He moved to the area that is now Crawford County in Georgia. He began to teach agricultural practices to the tribe, starting a farm at his home on the Flint River. In time, he brought in slaves and workers, cleared several hundred acres, and established mills and a trading post as well as his farm. For years, Hawkins met with chiefs on his porch to discuss matters. He was responsible for the longest period of peace between the settlers and the tribe, overseeing 19 years of peace. In 1805, the Lower Creeks ceded their lands east of the Ocmulgee to Georgia, with the exception of the sacred burial mounds of the Ocmulgee Old Fields. They allowed a Federal Road linking New Orleans to Washington, D. To be built through their territory. A number of Muscogee chiefs acquired slaves and created cotton plantations, grist mills and businesses along the Federal Road. In 1806, Fort Benjamin Hawkins was built on a hill overlooking the Ocmulgee Old Fields, to protect expanding settlements and serve as a reminder of U. Hawkins was disheartened and shocked by the outbreak of the Creek War, which destroyed his life work of improving the Muscogee quality of life. Hawkins saw much of his work toward building a peace destroyed in 1812. A faction of Muscogee joined the Pan-American Indian movement of Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh, rejecting accommodation with white settlers and adaptation of European-American culture. Although Hawkins personally was never attacked, he was forced to watch an internal civil war among the Muscogee develop into a war with the United States. Further information: Great Comet of 1811. Further information: 1812 New Madrid earthquake. The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth. A comet appeared in March 1811. The Shawnee leader Tecumseh, whose name meant “shooting star”, [35] traveled to Tuckabatchee, where he told the Muscogee that the comet signaled his coming. McKenney reported that Tecumseh would prove that the Great Spirit had sent him by giving the Muscogee a sign. Shortly after Tecumseh left the Southeast, the sign arrived as promised in the form of an earthquake. On December 16, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake shook the Muscogee lands and the Midwest. While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, one consensus was universally accepted: the powerful earthquake had to have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh resistance movement by convincing, not only the Muscogee, but other Native American tribes as well, that the Shawnee must be supported. The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee to support the Shawnee’s resistance. The Indians were filled with great terror… The trees and wigwams shook exceedingly; the ice which skirted the margin of the Arkansas river was broken into pieces; and most of the Indians thought that the Great Spirit, angry with the human race, was about to destroy the world. Nichols, The American Indian. The Muscogee who joined Tecumseh’s confederation were known as the Red Sticks. Stories of the origin of the Red Stick name varies, but one is that they were named for the Muscogee tradition of carrying a bundle of sticks that mark the days until an event occurs. Sticks painted red symbolize war. Further information: Creek War, Red Sticks, and Fort Mims massacre. Menawa was one of the principal leaders of the Red Sticks. After the war, he continued to oppose white encroachment on Muscogee lands, visiting Washington, D. In 1826 to protest the treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King, 1837. Inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh (to whom nineteenth-century writers attributed fiery speeches that he “must have said”)[citation needed] and their own religious leaders, and encouraged by British traders, Red Stick leaders such as William Weatherford (Red Eagle), Peter McQueen, and Menawa won the support of the Upper Creek towns. Allied with the British, they opposed white encroachment on Muscogee lands and the “civilizing programs” administered by Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins, and clashed with many of the leading chiefs of the Muscogee Nation, most notably the Lower Creek Mico William McIntosh, Hawkins’ most powerful ally. Their opponents, who sought peaceful relations with white settlers, were known as the White Sticks. Before the Muscogee Civil War began, the Red Sticks attempted to keep their activities secret from the old chiefs. They were emboldened when Tecumseh rallied his followers and joined with a British invasion to capture Fort Detroit in August 1812. In February 1813, a small party of Red Sticks, led by Little Warrior, was returning from Detroit when they killed two families of settlers along the Duck River, near Nashville. Hawkins demanded that the Muscogees turn over Little Warrior and his six companions. Instead of handing the marauders over to the federal agents, Big Warrior and the old chiefs decided to execute the war party. This decision was the spark which ignited the civil war among the Muscogee. The first clashes between Red Sticks and the American whites took place on July 21, 1813, when a group of American soldiers from Fort Mims (north of Mobile, Alabama) stopped a party of Red Sticks who were returning from West Florida, where they had bought munitions from the Spanish governor at Pensacola. The Red Sticks fled the scene, and the U. Soldiers looted what they found, allowing the Red Sticks to regroup and retaliate with a surprise attack that forced the Americans to retreat. On August 30, 1813, Red Sticks led by Red Eagle William Weatherford attacked Fort Mims, where white settlers and their Indian allies had gathered. The Red Sticks captured the fort by surprise, and carried out a massacre, killing men, women, and children. They spared only the black slaves whom they took as captured booty. After the Indians killed nearly 250-500 at the fort, settlers across the American southwestern frontier were in a panic. Although the Red Sticks won the battle, they had lost the war. On the morning of August 30, 1813, few of Fort Mims’ defenders stirred in the steaming heat. In the forested shade, the Creeks watched and waited. The fort’s main gate, located on the east side of the stockade, had not been closed by the garrison troops… No sentries occupied the blockhouse. A Short History of the Ft. Mims Massacre of 1813 during the Creek Indian War[38]. The Fort Mims Massacre was followed two days later by the smaller Kimbell-James Massacre. The only explanation of this catastrophic event is that the Upper Creek leaders thought that fighting the United States was like fighting another Creek tribe, and taking Fort Mims was an even bigger victory than the Battle of Burnt Corn had been. The Red Stick victory spread panic throughout the southeastern United States, and the cry Remember Fort Mims! Was popular among the public wanting revenge. With Federal troops tied up on the northern front against the British in Canada, the Tennessee, Georgia, and the Mississippi Territory militias were commissioned and invaded the Upper Creek towns. They were joined by Indian allies, the Lower Creek under William McIntosh and the Cherokee under Major Ridge. Outnumbered and poorly armed, much too far from Canada or the Gulf Coast to receive British aid, the Red Sticks put up a desperate fight. On March 27, 1814, General Andrew Jackson’s Tennessee militia, aided by the 39th U. Infantry Regiment and Cherokee and Lower Creek warriors, crushed the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River. Though the Red Sticks had been soundly defeated and about 3,000 Upper Muscogee died in the war, the remnants held out several months longer. Depiction of Red Eagle’s surrender to Andrew Jackson after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford’s boldness that he let him go. In August 1814, the Red Sticks surrendered to Jackson at Wetumpka (near the present city of Montgomery, Alabama). On August 9, 1814, the Muscogee nation was forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson. It ended the war and required the tribe to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 km2) of land- more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings- to the United States. Even those who had fought alongside Jackson were compelled to cede land, since Jackson held them responsible for allowing the Red Sticks to revolt. The state of Alabama was created largely from the Red Sticks’ domain and was admitted to the United States in 1819. WHEREAS an unprovoked, inhuman, and sanguinary war, waged by the hostile Creeks against the United States, hath been repelled, prosecuted and determined, successfully, on the part of the said States, in conformity with principles of national justice and honorable warfare– And whereas consideration is due to the rectitude of proceeding dictated by instructions relating to the re-establishment of peace: Be it remembered, that prior to the conquest of that part of the Creek nation hostile to the United States, numberless aggressions had been committed against the peace, the property, and the lives of citizens of the United States.. Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814[39]. Many Muscogee refused to surrender and escaped to Florida. They allied with other remnant tribes, becoming the Seminole. Muscogee were later involved on both sides of the Seminole Wars in Florida. The Red Stick refugees who arrived in Florida after the Creek War tripled the Seminole population, and strengthened the tribe’s Muscogee characteristics. [40] In 1814, British forces landed in West Florida and began arming the Seminoles. The British had built a strong fort on the Apalachicola River at Prospect Bluff, and in 1815, after the end of the War of 1812, offered it, with all its ordnance (muskets, cannons, powder, shot, cannonballs) to the locals: Seminoles and maroons (escaped slaves). A few hundred maroons constituted a uniformed Corps of Colonial Marines, who had had military training, however rudimentary, and discipline (but whose English officers had departed). The Seminole only wanted to return to their villages, so the maroons became owners of the Fort. It soon came to be called the’Negro Fort’ by Southern planters, and it was widely known among enslaved blacks by word of mouth – a place nearby where blacks were free and had guns, as in Haiti. The white pro-slave holding planters correctly felt its simple existence inspired escape or rebellion by the oppressed African-Americans, and they complained to the US government. The maroons had not received training in how to aim the Fort’s cannons. After notifying the Spanish governor, who had very limited resources, and who said he had no orders to take action, U. General Andrew Jackson quickly destroyed the Fort, in a famous and picturesque, though tragic, incident in 1816 that has been called “the deadliest cannon shot in American history”[41] (see Battle of Negro Fort). The Seminole continued to welcome fugitive black slaves and raid American settlers, leading the U. To declare war in 1817. The following year, General Andrew Jackson invaded Florida with an army that included more than 1,000 Lower Creek warriors; they destroyed Seminole towns and captured Pensacola. Jackson’s victory forced Spain to sign the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819, ceding Florida to the U. In 1823, a delegation of Seminole chiefs met with the new U. Governor of Florida, expressing their opposition to proposals that would reunite them with the Upper and Lower Creek, partly because the latter tribes intended to enslave the Black Seminoles. Instead, the Seminoles agreed to move onto a reservation in inland central Florida. Charles Bird King’s portrait of William McIntosh. Mico William McIntosh led the Lower Creek warriors who fought alongside the U. In the Creek War and the First Seminole War. The son of the Loyalist officer of the same name who had recruited a band of Hitchiti to the British cause, McIntosh never knew his white father. He had family ties to some of Georgia’s planter elite, and after the wars became a wealthy cotton-planter. Through his mother, he was born into the prominent Wind Clan of the Creek; as the Creek had a matrilineal system of descent and inheritance, he achieved his chieftainship because of her. He was also related to Alexander McGillivray and William Weatherford, both mixed-race Creek. In the late 1810s and early 1820s, McIntosh helped create a centralized police force called’Law Menders,’ establish written laws, and form a National Creek Council. Later in the decade, he came to view relocation as inevitable. In 1821, McIntosh and several other chiefs signed away Lower Creek lands east of the Flint River at the first Treaty of Indian Springs. As a reward, McIntosh was granted 1,000 acres (4 km2) at the treaty site, where he built a hotel to attract tourists to local hot springs. The Creek National Council responded by prescribing the death penalty for tribesmen who surrendered additional land. Georgian settlers continued to pour into Indian lands, particularly after the discovery of gold in northern Georgia. In 1825 McIntosh and his first cousin, Georgia Governor George Troup, a leading advocate of Indian removal, signed the second Treaty of Indian Springs at his hotel. Signed by six other Lower Creek chiefs, the treaty ceded the last Lower Creek lands to Georgia, and allocated substantial sums to relocate the Muscogee to the Arkansas River. In April, the old Red Stick Menawa led about 200 Law Menders to execute McIntosh according to their law. They burned his upper Chattahoochee plantation. A delegation of the Creek National Council, led by the speaker Opothleyahola, traveled to Washington D. To protest the 1825 treaty. They convinced President John Quincy Adams that the treaty was invalid, and negotiated the more favorable Treaty of Washington (1826). Troup ignored the new treaty and ordered the eviction of the Muscogee from their remaining lands in Georgia without compensation, mobilizing state militia when Adams threatened federal intervention. In the aftermath of the Treaty of Fort Jackson and the Treaty of Washington (1826), the Muscogee were confined to a small strip of land in present-day east central Alabama. Andrew Jackson was inaugurated president of the United States in 1829, and with his inauguration the government stance toward Indians turned harsher. [42] Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. [42] Instead, he aggressively pursued plans to move all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma. Friends and Brothers – By permission of the Great Spirit above, and the voice of the people, I have been made President of the United States, and now speak to you as your Father and friend, and request you to listen. Your warriors have known me long You know I love my white and red children, and always speak with a straight, and not with a forked tongue; that I have always told you the truth… Where you now are, you and my white children are too near to each other to live in harmony and peace. Your game is destroyed, and many of your people will not work and till the earth. Beyond the great River Mississippi, where a part of your nation has gone, your Father has provided a country large enough for all of you, and he advises you to remove to it. There your white brothers will not trouble you; they will have no claim to the land, and you can live upon it you and all your children, as long as the grass grows or the water runs, in peace and plenty. It will be yours forever. For the improvements in the country where you now live, and for all the stock which you cannot take with you, your Father will pay you a fair price.. President Andrew Jackson addressing the Creeks, 1829[42]. At Jackson’s request, the United States Congress opened a fierce debate on an Indian Removal Bill. [42] In the end, the bill passed, but the vote was close. The Senate passed the measure 28 to 19, while in the House it squeaked by, 102 to 97. Jackson signed the legislation into law June 30, 1830. Following the Indian Removal Act, in 1832 the Creek National Council signed the Treaty of Cusseta, ceding their remaining lands east of the Mississippi to the U. And accepting relocation to the Indian Territory. Most Muscogee were removed to Indian Territory during the Trail of Tears in 1834, although some remained behind. Some Muscogee in Alabama live near the federally recognized Poarch Creek Reservation in Atmore (northeast of Mobile), and Muscogee live in essentially undocumented ethnic towns in Florida. The Alabama reservation includes a casino and 16-story hotel. The Creek tribe holds an annual powwow on Thanksgiving. Additionally, Muscogee descendants of varying degrees of acculturation live throughout the southeastern United States. By 1836, when extensive Creek removal was underway, Eneah Emathala emerged as leader of the Lower Creeks… Their desire was only to be left alone in their homeland… Winfield Scott was ordered to capture Eneah Emathala… Captured with Emathala were some one thousand other person… Their [racial] colors were black, red, and white.. Burt & Ferguson- Indians of the Southeast: Then and Now. See also: Indian Territory in the American Civil War. Members of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. They included men of mixed Creek, European and African ancestry. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Opothleyahola refused to form an alliance with the Confederacy, unlike many other tribes, including many of the Lower Creeks. Runaway slaves, free blacks, Chickasaw and Seminole Indians began gathering at Opothleyahola’s plantation, where they hoped to remain neutral in the conflict between the North and South. On August 15, 1861, Opothleyahola and tribal chief Micco Hutko contacted President Abraham Lincoln to request help for the Union loyalists. On September 10, they received a positive response, stating the United States government would assist them. The letter directed Opothleyahola to move his people to Fort Row in Wilson County, Kansas, where they would receive asylum and aid. [43] They became known as Loyalists, and many were members of the traditional Snake band in the latter part of the century. Because many Muscogee Creek people did support the Confederacy during the Civil War, the US government required a new treaty with the nation in 1866 to define peace after the war. It required the Creek to emancipate their slaves and to admit them as full members and citizens of the Creek Nation, equal to the Creek in receiving annuities and land benefits. They were then known as Creek Freedmen. The US government required setting aside part of the Creek reservation land to be assigned to the freedmen. Many of the tribe resisted these changes. The loss of lands contributed to problems for the nation in the late 19th century. The Loyalists among the Creek tended to be traditionalists. They formed the core of a band that became known as the Snakes, which also included many Creek Freedmen. At the end of the century, they resisted the extinguishing of tribal government and break-up of communal tribal lands enacted by the US Congress with the Dawes Commission of 1892. These efforts were part of the US government’s attempt to impose assimilation on the tribes, to introduce household ownership of land, and to remove legal barriers to the Indian Territory’s achieving statehood. Members of the Creek Nation were registered as individuals on the Dawes Rolls; the Commission separately registered intermarried whites and Creek Freedmen, whether or not they had any Creek ancestry. This ruined their claims to Creek membership later, even for people who had parents or other relative who were Creek. The Dawes Rolls have been used as the basis for many tribes to establish membership descent. European-American settlers had moved into the area and pressed for statehood and access to some of the tribal lands for settlement. Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief. Muscogee culture has greatly evolved over the centuries, combining mostly European-American influences; however, interaction with Spain, France, and England greatly shaped it as well. They were known for their rapid incorporation of modernity, developing a written language, transitioning to yeoman farming methods, and accepting European-Americans and African-Americans into their society. Muscogee people continue to preserve chaya and share a vibrant tribal identity through events such as annual festivals, stick ball games, and language classes. The Stomp Dance and Green Corn Ceremony are revered gatherings and rituals. While families include people who are directly related to each other, clans are composed of all people who are descendants of the same ancestral clan grouping. Like many Native American nations, the Muscogee Creek are matrilineal; each person belongs to the clan of his or her mother, who belongs to the clan of her mother. Inheritance and property are passed through the maternal line. Hereditary chiefs were born into certain clans. Biological fathers are important within the family system but must come from another clan than the mother. But, within the clan, it is the mother’s brother (the mother’s nearest blood relation) who functions as the primary teacher, protector, disciplinarian and role model for children, especially for boys. Clan members do not claim “blood relation” but consider each other as family due to their membership in the same clan. This is expressed by their using the same kinship titles for both family and clan relations. For example, clan members of approximately the same age consider each other “brother” and “sister”, even if they have never met before. Because of this system, the Muscogee Creek children born of European fathers belonged to their mother’s clans and were part of part of their tribal communities. High-ranking daughters of chiefs often found it advantageous to marry European traders, who could provide their families with goods. Muscogee Creek believed young men who became educated in European ways could help them manage under the new conditions related to colonialism, while preserving important Muscogee Creek cultural institutions. Muscogee clans are as follows:[44]. Bear Clan (Muklasalgi, Nokosalgi). Beaver Clan (Itamalgi, Isfanalgi, Itchhasuaigi). Bog Potato Clan (Ahalakalgi). Maize Clan (Aktayatsalgi, Atchialgi). Panther Clan (Chukotalgi, Katsalg). Raccoon Clan (Wahlakalgi, Wotkalgi). Salt Clan (Okilisa, Oktchunualgi). Toad Clan (Pahosalgi, Sopaktalgi). Turtle Clan (Locvlke) – related to Wind Clan. Wolf Clan (Yahalgi)[44] – related to Bear Clan. Ancestral Muscogee peoples wore clothing made of woven plant materials or animal hides, depending upon the climate. During the summer, they preferred lightweight fabrics woven from tree bark, grasses, or reeds. During the harsh winters, they used animal skins and fur for warmth. During the 17th century, the Muscogee adopted some elements of European fashion and materials. Cloth was lighter and more colorful than deer hide, it quickly became a popular trade item throughout the region. Trade cloth in a variety of patterns and textures enabled Muscogee women to develop new styles of clothing, which they made for both men, women, and children. They incorporated European trade items such as bells, silk ribbons, glass beads, and pieces of mirror into the clothing. Main article: Muscogee language. The Muscogee language is a member of the Muskogean family and was well known among the frontiersmen, such as Gideon Lincecum, of the early 19th century. The language is related to the Choctaw language, with some words being identical in pronunciation. The following table is an example of Muscogee text and its translation. Mont fayepat vrepet omvtes, hopvyen. Momet vrepet omvtetan, nake punvttv tat pvsvtepet, momet hvtvm efvn sulken omvtes. Momet mv efv tat efv fayvlket omekv, nak punvttuce tayen pvsvtepet omvtes. Mont aret omvtetan, efv tat estvn nak woheceto vtekat, nake punvttvn oken mv efv-pucase enkerret omvtes. English: Someone was hunting. He went hunting in far away places. He went continually, killing small game, and he had many dogs. And the dogs were hunting dogs, so he had killed many animals. When hunting, he always knew his dogs had an animal trapped by the sound of their barking. Ceded area as deemed by the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814. Land was the most valuable asset, which the Native Americans held in collective stewardship. The southern English colonies, US government and settlers systematically obtained Muscogee land through treaties, legislation, and warfare. Some treaties, such as the Treaty of San Lorenzo, indirectly affected the Muscogee. Treaty of Coweta Town. Treaty of Shoulder-bone Creek[46]. All lands east of the Oconee River. Treaty of New York. Boundaries defined, Civilization of Creek, Animosities to cease. Colerain (Camden County, Georgia). Boundary lines, Animosities to cease. Treaty of Fort Wilkinson. Treaty of Fort Jackson. Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama. 23 million acres (93,000 km2). Treaty of the Creek Agency. Treaty of the Indian Spring. Treaty of Indian Springs. Treaty of the Creek Indian Agency. Treaty with the Creeks. Treaty with the Creeks And Seminole. Treaty with the Creeks, Etc. In 1871, Congress added a rider to the Indian Appropriations Act to end the United States’ recognizing additional Indian tribes or nations, and prohibiting additional treaties. That hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty: Provided, further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe. Indian Appropriations Act of 1871[47]. The Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana are a tribe of Muscogee people, descended from the Koasati, as are the Alabama-Coushatta Tribes of Texas. Muscogee Creek bike messenger, originally from Okmulgee, Oklahoma. The Muscogee (Creek) Nation is a federally recognized Indian Nation. Their headquarters is in Okmulgee, Oklahoma and their current Principal Chief is David W. Three Muscogee tribal towns are federally recognized tribes: Alabama-Quassarte, Kialegee, and Thlopthlocco. Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town is headquartered is Wetumka, Oklahoma and its chief is Tarpie Yargee. [49] Kialegee Tribal Town is headquartered in Wetumka, and Jeremiah Hoia is the current mekko or chief. [50] The Thlopthlocco Tribal Town is headquartered in Okemah, Oklahoma. George Scott is the mekko. Micah Wesley, Muscogee Creek-Kiowa artist and DJ[51][52]. Tullis led the Poarch Band of Creek Indians in their petitioning the United States government to recognize a government-to-government relationship. On August 11, 1984, these efforts culminated in the United States Government, Department of Interior, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs acknowledging that the Poarch Band of Creek Indians existed as an “Indian Tribe”. The tribe is the only federally recognized tribe in the state of Alabama. On November 21, 1984, the US government took 231.54 acres (0.9370 km2) of land into trust for the tribe as a communal holding. On April 12, 1985, 229.54 acres (0.9289 km2) were declared a reservation. Many Muscogee moved out of their tribal nation in Oklahoma to the nearest cities (Tulsa and Oklahoma City), and to other states like California, Michigan, Missouri and Tennessee in the second half of the 20th century. Army during World War II and the first Native American to be awarded a Medal of Honor during that war. Eddie Chuculate (born 1972), Muscogee-Cherokee author and journalist. Joy Harjo (born 1959), Muscogee/Cherokee poet and jazz musician. Suzan Shown Harjo (born 1945), Muscogee/Cheyenne activist, policymaker, journalist, and poet. Joan Hill (born 1930), Muscogee/Cherokee artist. William Harjo LoneFight (born 1966), author, president of Native American Services, languages and cultural activist. He traveled to Washington DC to sign treaties and lead Creek warriors on American side in Seminole War. Grant-Lee Phillips (born 1963), Alternative-Americana artist and founder-songwriter of Grant Lee Buffalo, enrolled in the Muscogee (Creek) Nation[53]. Cynthia Leitich Smith (born 1967), children’s book author, noted for Jingle Dancer. France Winddance Twine (born 1960) Professor of Sociology at the University of California Santa Barbara. William Weatherford, also known as Red Eagle c. 1781 – 1824, led the Creek War offensive against the United States. Tommy Wildcat (born 1967), cultural historian, flutist, traditionalist. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
  • Region of Origin: US
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Mythographic Voyage

1961 Original Ford Motor Company Lee Iacocca Photo 8×10 Vintage General Manager

1961 Original Ford Motor Company Lee Iacocca Photo 8x10 Vintage General Manager

1961 Original Ford Motor Company Lee Iacocca Photo 8x10 Vintage General Manager

A VINTAGE ORIGINAL 8X10 INCH PHTOO FROM 1961 DEPICTING LEE A. IACOCCA VICE PRESIDENT, FORD MOTOR COMPANY AND FORD DIVISION GENERAL MANAGER. Lido Anthony “Lee” Iacocca was an American automobile executive best known for the development of Ford Mustang and Pinto cars, while at the Ford Motor Company in the 1960s, and for reviving the Chrysler Corporation as its CEO during the 1980s. Iacocca, the visionary automaker who ran the Ford Motor Company and then the Chrysler Corporation and came to personify Detroit as the dream factory of America’s postwar love affair with the automobile, died on Tuesday at his home in Bel Air, Calif. He had complications from Parkinson’s disease, a family spokeswoman said. In an industry that had produced legends, from giants like Henry Ford and Walter Chrysler to the birth of the assembly line and freedoms of the road that led to suburbia and the middle class, Mr. Iacocca, the son of an immigrant hot-dog vendor, made history as the only executive in modern times to preside over the operations of two of the Big Three automakers. In the 1970s and’80s, with Detroit still dominating the nation’s automobile market, his name evoked images of executive suites, infighting, power plays and the grit and savvy to sell American cars. He was so widely admired that there was serious talk of his running for president of the United States in 1988. Detractors branded him a Machiavellian huckster who clawed his way to pinnacles of power in 32 years at Ford, building flashy cars like the Mustang, making the covers of Time and Newsweek and becoming the company president at 46, only to be spectacularly fired in 1978 by the founder’s grandson, Henry Ford II. But admirers called him a bold, imaginative leader who landed on his feet after his dismissal and, in a 14-year second act that secured his worldwide reputation, took over the floundering Chrysler Corporation and restored it to health in what experts called one of the most brilliant turnarounds in business history. Iacocca with a Ford Mustang in the 1970s. The LIFE Images Collection, via Getty Images. Iacocca challenged the public. I want you to compare. Fusing his identity with his company’s to sell cars and win over Washington, Lee Iacocca was a celebrity C. For the modern era. As the 1980s unfolded, his commercials hammered at a theme: The pride is back. And so it seemed. The guaranteed loans were repaid in four years, seven years early. Its stock price soared, as did Mr. His achievement in restoring Chrysler was all the more impressive because it had begun in a national recession and matured against intense competition from America’s larger automakers, Ford and General Motors, and from a rising tide of imported cars from Japan and other countries. With tens of millions of copies in print, it still regales readers with its intimate look at the auto industry of Mr. Iacocca’s day, its cast of larger-than-life characters, its accounts of the author’s dismissal at Ford and his rescue of Chrysler. A Racist Attack on Children Was Taped in 1975. America’s Enduring Caste System. Continue reading the main story. Television commercials and news photographs had made him one of the nation’s best-known faces, an oval of grandfatherly features: a balding pate, a fleshy nose, mischievous eyes behind half-rim glasses, thin lips chomping an imported cigar, and a bland political smile that gave away nothing. A heroic figure to many Americans, he became chairman of a project to restore the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, and was in demand for speeches and public appearances that took on the color of a campaign. He conferred with President Ronald Reagan, members of Congress, governors and business leaders. He was mobbed by admirers and pursued by the press. Polls confirmed that a run for the White House was realistic, and his denials of political ambition only fueled public interest in a possible candidacy. Levin, a former reporter and Detroit bureau chief for The New York Times, wrote in “Behind the Wheel at Chrysler” (1995). At the peak of his popularity, many Americans believed not only that Iacocca held the answers to the nation’s economic ills but also that he should lead the country as president. But by the late 1980s, storm clouds that Mr. Iacocca and other auto executives had long ignored were gathering. The stock market had plunged in 1987, and Japan, long since recovered from the disasters of World War II, had become a world-class economic power, whose fuel-efficient cars were flooding the United States. Americans wanted reliable, well-built cars with innovations like airbags, and Honda and Toyota were supplying them. Iacocca, as he acknowledged, had drifted too far from day-to-day operations. By the 1990s, many American cars could not compete with Japanese innovations. The Iacocca magic, like Chrysler’s earnings, faded as the nation dipped into recession. He persuaded Congress to give some protection to the American auto industry from imported cars, but Japan just set up factories to build cars in the United States. Iacocca, then 37, in 1961 beside a new model of the Ford Fairlane. The year before he became general manager of the Ford Division of the Ford Motor Company. Iacocca barnstormed the country, demonizing the Japanese as alien invaders. He argued that Chrysler made better cars, that Japan’s “Teflon kimono” had deceived Americans and that the United States was suffering from a national inferiority complex. Trying to reverse the decline, Mr. Iacocca established partnerships with Mitsubishi, Maserati and Fiat, but they were no panacea. Finally surrendering to pressures to step down, he hired Robert J. Eaton, the head of G. S European operations, as his designated successor, and retired as Chrysler’s chairman and chief executive in 1992. “He’s like Babe Ruth, ” Bennett E. Bidwell, a retired Chrysler executive, said of Mr. He hit home runs and he struck out a lot. But he always filled the ballpark. He was born Lido Anthony Iacocca on Oct. 15, 1924, in Allentown, Pa. One of two children of Nicola and Antoinette Perrotto Iacocca, immigrants from San Marco, Italy, who named him after the Venice beach resort. He and his sister, Delma, grew up in Allentown. Their father had little education. He lost nearly everything but his Orpheum Weiner House in the Depression. But he later acquired several movie theaters and opened one of the country’s first car-rental companies with a small fleet of Fords, and Lido grew up talking cars with his father. Iacocca with his wife, Mary, in 1974. John Olson/The LIFE Images Collection, via Getty Images. “The Depression turned me into a materialist, ” Mr. Iacocca recalled in his autobiography. Years later, when I graduated from college, my attitude was:’Don’t bother me with philosophy. I want to make ten thousand a year by the time I’m 25, and then I want to be a millionaire. He also heard anti-Italian slurs in streets and schoolyards. While attending Allentown High School, he suffered a severe case of rheumatic fever. Unable to compete in sports, he pushed himself in his studies and graduated with honors in 1942. Lingering effects of the illness kept him out of World War II. At Lehigh University in nearby Bethlehem, Pa. He became a talented debater, had excellent grades and in 1945 graduated after three years with a bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering. He also impressed a Ford recruiter and was hired for an executive training program. Instead of engineering, he saw his future in marketing in the postwar boom years and lined up a job in sales in Ford’s Chester, Pa. Office, assisting dealers in the eastern Pennsylvania region. He decided to change his foreign-sounding first name to Lee, a serious concession for a young man proud of his ethnicity. He worked endless hours in the 1940s and early’50s, honing his speaking skills, studying sales trends and coordinating the strategies of his dealers. Iacocca married Mary McCleary, a Ford receptionist in Chester. They had two children, Kathryn Iacocca Hentz and Lia Iacocca Assad, who survive him, as do his sister, Delma Kelechava, and eight grandchildren. His first wife died in 1983 from complications of diabetes. In 1986 he married Peggy Johnson, a former flight attendant. The marriage was annulled in 1987. In 1991 he married Darrien Earle, whom he divorced in 1994. Iacocca preparing to film a TV commercial at an assembly plant in 1983. He became one of the nation’s best-known faces, an oval of grandfatherly features. Ted Thai/The LIFE Images Collection, via Getty Images. It took a decade for Mr. Iacocca to distinguish himself in Ford’s huge work force. Then he had a clever idea for a sales pitch. The idea was so successful regionally that Ford turned it into a national campaign and made him the corporate director of truck marketing. He also came to the attention of Robert S. McNamara, Ford’s vice president for car and truck sales and a future Ford president and secretary of defense. As a McNamara protégé, he learned to be an executive – to run meetings, analyze trends and mediate the often competing interests of Ford’s bean-counting financial analysts and its aggressive marketing and sales forces. He also learned the subtle, sometimes brutal, strategies of the executive scramble – to court allies, evaluate and undercut rivals, whatever it took to gain the next rung up the corporate ladder. Associates said he could humble a subordinate for a mistake one day and praise him the next. He once fired an executive and, on the way to the door, reminded him of their families’ dinner date later in the week. McNamara as vice president and general manager of the Ford Division in 1960, and four years later secured his place in automotive history by bringing out the Mustang, a small, rakish car with bucket seats and a floor shift that appealed to affluent young buyers and motorists of all ages who had dreamed of owning a sports car. Its success landed Mr. Iacocca and the Mustang on the covers of Time and Newsweek in the same week in April 1964. Iacocca became a favorite of reporters, who delighted in his candor, rare in the car industry. He produced other winners – the Maverick to compete with imports, the Lincoln Continental Mark III to challenge G. There were missteps: The Pinto burst into flames in rear-end collisions, and lives were lost. For years he opposed airbags, mandatory seatbelts and other safety items, insisting they did not sell cars. Iacocca with Frank Sinatra, left, and Barbara Sinatra in 1988, when he worked for Chrysler. He had reveled in the glitzy perquisites of his lofty position at Ford, traveling in a private Boeing 727 and entertaining in lavish suites. Ron Galella/WireImage, via Getty Images. But he outmaneuvered rivals for the executive suite and was named president of Ford in 1970, the No. 2 post, reporting only to the chairman, Henry Ford II. In the next eight years, as gasoline prices and foreign competition rose, Mr. Iacocca cut costs, streamlined operations and turned unprofitable divisions around. He nurtured managers who challenged conventional wisdom and solicited ideas from dealers and unions. He also began to revel in the glitzy perquisites of his lofty position. He traveled in a private Boeing 727, entertained in lavish Ford suites at the Waldorf Astoria in New York and Claridge’s in London, and partied with Frank Sinatra and other celebrities. His extravagances reportedly offended Mr. Iacocca’s relationship with the boss had never been close. Ford visited his office only a few times in his eight years as president. Their families rarely socialized. The company was publicly held, but Mr. Ford remained autocratic, deciding the fates of executives who came and went. Iacocca in July 1978, saying he just did not like him. He never gave more detailed reasons. Some industry observers said Mr. Ford could not tolerate a nonfamily rival, especially one of Mr. In his memoir, Mr. Iacocca detailed a long struggle between them, and called Mr. Ford a man of limited vision with ethnic and racial biases. Several months later, Mr. It was debt-ridden, losing millions and had virtually no credit. It was not enough. He turned to the government for help, igniting a national debate over a bailout. Iacocca at his home in Bel Air, Calif. After retiring as Chrysler’s chairman and chief executive in 1992, he invested in electric bicycles, olive oil and other ventures. Emilio Flores for The New York Times. Iacocca did not ask for a handout, or even a loan, just a federal guarantee of loans from banks and other creditors. Taking him at his word – that he could resurrect Chrysler, that it was too important to be allowed to fail – Congress passed and President Jimmy Carter signed the loan guarantee, enabling the company to get back on its feet. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors and its Jeep division. Its Jeep Grand Cherokee was introduced in 1992, the year Mr. Iacocca retired, and became one of the biggest sellers in Chrysler history. Iacocca moved to Bel Air, Calif. Where he invested in electric bicycles, olive oil and other ventures and promoted diabetes research. But he was restless for action. Chrysler rebuffed it and canceled plans to name its headquarters and technology center in Auburn Hills, Mich. Iacocca, whose action was portrayed as a betrayal of the company he had rescued. In 1998, Daimler-Benz A. Iacocca said it might not have happened if his takeover had succeeded. The company is now owned by the Italian company Fiat. In addition to his autobiography, Mr. Iacocca wrote “Talking Straight” (1988) with N. Kleinfield, then a reporter for The Times, and Where Have All the Leaders Gone? (2007) with Catherine Whitney. In 2008, months before Chrysler and General Motors declared bankruptcy after years of mounting losses, Mr. Iacocca visited Auburn Hills and was greeted with thunderous applause by a thousand Chrysler workers. “Don’t get panicked, ” he told them. Things are going to be O. Now is the time to show your stuff. We don’t have any alibis. The truth is automobiles in America are still a vital business. American auto executive Lee Iacocca became a national celebrity for steering the Chrysler Corporation away from bankruptcy toward record profits in the 1980s. Who Was Lee Iacocca? Lee Iacocca joined the Ford Motor Company in 1946. He rose rapidly, becoming president of Ford in 1970. Though Henry Ford II fired Iacocca in 1978, he was soon hired by the nearly bankrupt Chrysler Corporation. Within a few years Chrysler was showing record profits, and Iacocca was a national celebrity. Lido Anthony Iacocca, generally known as Lee Iacocca, was born to Italian immigrants Nicola and Antonietta in Allentown, Pennsylvania, on October 15, 1924. Iacocca suffered a serious bout of rheumatic fever as a child, and as a result he was found medically unfit for military service in World War II. During the war, he attended Lehigh University as an undergraduate. He then received a master’s degree in engineering from Princeton University. I was raised to give back. I was born to immigrant parents and was fortunate to become successful at an early age. Climbing the Ranks at Ford and the Mustang. Iacocca’s engineering degree landed him a job at the Ford Motor Company in 1946. He soon left engineering for sales, where he excelled, then worked in product development. Iacocca also moved up the ranks at Ford, becoming a vice president and general manager of the Ford division by 1960. One of Iacocca’s accomplishments was helping to bring the iconic Mustang – an affordable, stylish sports car – to the market in 1964. In 1970, Iacocca became Ford’s president. However, the straight-talking Iacocca clashed with Henry Ford II, scion of the Ford family and chairman of the auto company. The tense relationship between the two led to Ford firing Iacocca in 1978. A few months after leaving Ford, Iacocca was hired to head the Chrysler Corporation, which was then in such financial distress that it was in danger of bankruptcy. This gave Iacocca the breathing room he needed to revamp and streamline operations. During Iacocca’s tenure, the popular minivan was added to the Chrysler vehicle lineup. The company edged into profitability in 1981 and repaid its government loans in 1983, years ahead of schedule. The True Story Behind’Ford v Ferrari. BY COLIN BERTRAM NOV 13, 2019. Iacocca’s success in turning Chrysler around made him a national celebrity. President Ronald Reagan asked him to help coordinate fundraising efforts for the restoration of Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. Two books written by Iacocca, his 1984 autobiography Iacocca and Talking Straight (1988), became best-sellers. He even made an appearance on the popular 1980s TV show Miami Vice. Iacocca retired from Chrysler in 1992. He was then able to devote more time to the Iacocca Family Foundation, a charity that supports diabetes research (Iacocca’s first wife, Mary, suffered from diabetes and died from complications related to the disease). Philanthropy is now a big part of my life, with the Iacocca Foundation funding cutting-edge research to find a cure for diabetes. Iacocca also worked with Kirk Kerkorian on an attempted hostile takeover of Chrysler in the mid-1990s. Despite the thwarted takeover attempt, Iacocca resumed his role as a Chrysler pitchman in 2005, appearing in ads with Jason Alexander and Snoop Dogg. Iacocca’s compensation for the commercials was sent to his foundation. He remained a booster for the U. Car industry, though his frustration with both public and private leadership was the subject of his third book, Where Have All the Leaders Gone? After losing his first wife in 1983, Iacocca married Peggy Johnson from 1986 to 1987. He had another short-lived marriage to Darrien Earle from 1991 to 1994. In his later years, he enjoyed spending time with his two daughters, Kathryn and Lia, from his first marriage and his grandchildren. Iacocca died on July 2, 2019, in Bel Air, California. Lido Anthony “Lee” Iacocca /? October 15, 1924 – July 2, 2019 was an American automobile executive best known for the development of Ford Mustang and Pinto cars, while at the Ford Motor Company in the 1960s, and for reviving the Chrysler Corporation as its CEO during the 1980s. [1] He was president and CEO of Chrysler from 1978 and chairman from 1979, until his retirement at the end of 1992. He was one of the few executives to preside over the operations of two of the Big Three automakers. Iacocca authored or co-authored several books, including Iacocca: An Autobiography (with William Novak), and Where Have All the Leaders Gone? Portfolio Magazine named Iacocca the 18th-greatest American CEO of all time. 1995 “Return” to Chrysler. Chrysler’s 2009 bankruptcy. Other work and activities. Later life and death. Iacocca was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania, to Nicola Iacocca and Antonietta Perrotta, Italian Americans (from San Marco dei Cavoti, Benevento) who had settled in Pennsylvania’s steel-production belt. Members of his family operated a restaurant, Yocco’s Hot Dogs. [4] He was said to have been christened with the unusual name “Lido” because he was conceived during his parents’ honeymoon in the Lido district in Venice. However, he denied this rumor in his autobiography, saying that is romantic but not true; his father went to Lido long before his marriage and was traveling with his future wife’s brother. Iacocca graduated with honors from Allentown High School in 1942, and Lehigh University in neighboring Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, with a degree in industrial engineering. [2] He was a member of Tau Beta Pi, the engineering honor society, and an alumnus of Theta Chi fraternity. After graduating from Lehigh, he won the Wallace Memorial Fellowship and went to Princeton University, where he took his electives in politics and plastics. He then began a career at the Ford Motor Company as an engineer. Iacocca was instrumental in the introduction of the Ford Mustang. Pictured here is a 1965 Mustang convertible. Iacocca joined Ford Motor Company in August 1946. After a brief stint in engineering, he asked to be moved to sales and marketing, where his career flourished. [6] His campaign went national, and Iacocca was called to the Dearborn headquarters, where he quickly moved up through the ranks. On November 10, 1960 Iacocca was named vice-president and general manager of the Ford Division; in January 1965 Ford’s vice-president, car and truck group; in 1967, executive vice-president; and president on December 10, 1970. Iacocca participated in the design of several successful Ford automobiles, most notably the Ford Mustang, the Continental Mark III, the Ford Escort and the revival of the Mercury brand in the late 1960s, including the introduction of the Mercury Cougar and Mercury Marquis. He promoted other ideas which did not reach the marketplace as Ford products. These included cars ultimately introduced by Chrysler – the K car and the minivan. Iacocca also convinced company boss Henry Ford II to return to racing, claiming several wins at the Indianapolis 500, NASCAR and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Eventually, he became the president of the Ford Motor Company, but he clashed with Henry Ford II. Main article: Ford Pinto. The Pinto entered production beginning with the 1971 model year. Iacocca was described as the “moving force” behind the Ford Pinto. [11] This was largely due to recalls of its Dodge Aspen and Plymouth Volare, both of which Iacocca later said should never have been built. [dubious - discuss] Iacocca joined Chrysler and began rebuilding the entire company from the ground up and bringing in many former associates from Ford. Also from Ford, Iacocca brought to Chrysler the “Mini-Max” project, which, in 1983, bore fruit in the highly successful Dodge Caravan and Plymouth Voyager. Hal Sperlich, the driving force behind the Mini-Max at Ford, had been fired a few months before Iacocca. He had been hired by Chrysler, where the two would make automotive history together. Iacocca arrived shortly after Chrysler’s introduction of the subcompact Dodge Omni and Plymouth Horizon. The Omni was a derivative of Chrysler Europe’s Chrysler Horizon, one of the first deliberately designed “World Cars”, which resulted in the American and European cars looking nearly identical externally. However, underneath remarkably similar-looking sheetmetal, engines, transmissions, suspensions, bumpers and interior design were quite different. Cars even used VW-based engines (while the European models used Simca engines), as American Chrysler did not have an engine of an appropriate size for the Omni until the 2.2L engine from the Chrysler K-Car became available. Ironically, some later year base model U. Omnis used a French Peugeot-based 1.6L engine. The Dodge Aries, a typical K-Car. Realizing that the company would go out of business if it did not receive a large infusion of cash, Iacocca approached the United States Congress in 1979 and successfully requested a loan guarantee. In order to obtain the guarantee, Chrysler was required to reduce costs and abandon some longstanding projects, such as the turbine engine, which had been ready for consumer production in 1979 after nearly 20 years of development. Chrysler released the first of the K-Car line, the Dodge Aries and Plymouth Reliant, in 1981. Similar to the later minivan, these compact automobiles were based on design proposals that Ford had rejected during Iacocca’s (and Sperlich’s) tenure. In addition, Iacocca re-introduced the big Imperial as the company’s flagship. The new model had all of the newest technologies of the time, including fully electronic fuel injection and all-digital dashboard. Chrysler introduced the minivan, chiefly Sperlich’s “baby”, in late 1983. It led the automobile industry in sales for 25 years. [12] Because of the K-cars and minivans, along with the reforms Iacocca implemented, the company turned around quickly and was able to repay the government-backed loans seven years earlier than expected. The Jeep Grand Cherokee design was the driving force behind Chrysler’s buyout of AMC. Iacocca desperately wanted it. Iacocca led Chrysler’s acquisition of AMC in 1987, which brought the profitable Jeep division under the corporate umbrella. It created the short-lived Eagle division. By this time, AMC had already finished most of the work on the Jeep Grand Cherokee, which Iacocca wanted. The Grand Cherokee would not be released until 1992 for the 1993 model year, the same year that Iacocca retired. Throughout the 1980s, Iacocca appeared in a series of commercials for the company’s vehicles, employing the ad campaign, “The pride is back, ” to denote the turnaround of the corporation. Iacocca retired as president, CEO and chairman of Chrysler at the end of 1992. In 1995, Iacocca assisted in billionaire Kirk Kerkorian’s hostile takeover of Chrysler, which was ultimately unsuccessful. The next year, Kerkorian and Chrysler made a five-year agreement which included a gag order preventing Iacocca from speaking publicly about Chrysler. In an April 2009 Newsweek interview, Iacocca reflected on his time spent at Chrysler and the company’s current situation. This is a sad day for me. It pains me to see my old company, which has meant so much to America, on the ropes. But Chrysler has been in trouble before, and we got through it, and I believe they can do it again. If they’re smart, they’ll bring together a consortium of workers, plant managers and dealers to come up with real solutions. These are the folks on the front lines, and they’re the key to survival. Let’s face it, if your car breaks down, you’re not going to take it to the White House to get fixed. But, if your company breaks down, you’ve got to go to the experts on the ground, not the bureaucrats. Every day I talk to dealers and managers, who are passionate and full of ideas. No one wants Chrysler to survive more than they do. So I’d say to the Obama administration, don’t leave them out. Put their passion and ideas to work. Because of the Chrysler bankruptcy, Iacocca lost part of his pension from a supplemental executive retirement plan, and a guaranteed company car during his lifetime. The losses occurred after the bankruptcy court approved the sale of Chrysler to Chrysler Group LLC, with ownership of the new company by the United Auto Workers, the Italian carmaker Fiat and the governments of the United States and Canada. Presentation by Iacocca on Where Have All the Leaders Gone? April 23, 2007, C-SPAN. In 1984, Iacocca co-authored (with William Novak) an autobiography, titled Iacocca: An Autobiography. [2] The book used heavy discounting which would become a trend among publishers in the 1980s. [16] Iacocca donated the proceeds of the book’s sales to type 1 diabetes research. In 1988, Iacocca co-authored (with Sonny Kleinfeld) Talking Straight, [17] a book meant as a counterbalance to Akio Morita’s Made in Japan, a non-fiction book praising Japan’s post-war hard-working culture. Talking Straight praised the innovation and creativity of Americans. On April 17, 2007, Simon & Schuster published Iacocca’s book, Where Have All the Leaders Gone? Co-written with Catherine Whitney. [19][20] In the book, Iacocca writes. Where the hell is our outrage? We should be screaming bloody murder. But instead of getting mad, everyone sits around and nods their heads when the politicians say, Stay the course. You’ve got to be kidding. This is America, not the damned Titanic. I’ll give you a sound bite: Throw the bums out! Iacocca partnered with producer Pierre Cossette to bring a production of The Will Rogers Follies to Branson, Missouri, in 1994. He also invested in Branson Hills, a 1,400-acre housing development. In 1993, he had joined the board of MGM Grand, led by his friend Kirk Kerkorian. [22] He started a merchant bank to fund ventures in the gaming industry, which he called “the fastest-growing business in the world”. Iacocca founded Olivio Premium Products in 1993. Olivio’s signature product was an olive oil-based margarine product. Iacocca appeared in commercials for Olivio. Iacocca joined the board of restaurant chain Koo Koo Roo in 1995. [26] In 1998, he stepped up to serve as acting chairman of the troubled company, and led it through a merger with Family Restaurants (owner of Chi-Chi’s and El Torito). He sat on the board of the merged company until stepping down in 1999. In 1999, Iacocca became the head of EV Global Motors, a company formed to develop and market electric bikes with a top speed of 15 mph and a range of 20 miles between recharging at wall outlets. In May 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Iacocca to head the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, which was created to raise funds for the restoration of the Statue of Liberty and the renovation of Ellis Island. [29] Iacocca continued to serve on the board of the foundation until his death. Following the death of Iacocca’s wife Mary from type 1 diabetes, he became an active supporter of research for the disease. He was one of the main patrons of the research of Denise Faustman at Massachusetts General Hospital. In 2000, Iacocca founded Olivio Premium Products, which manufactures the Olivio line of food products made from olive oil. He donated all profits from the company to type 1 diabetes research. In 2004, Iacocca launched Join Lee Now, [30] a national grassroots campaign, to bring Faustman’s research to human clinical trials in 2006. Iacocca was an advocate of “Nourish the Children”, an initiative of Nu Skin Enterprises, [31] since its inception in 2002; he even served as its chairman. He helped donate a generator for the Malawi VitaMeal plant. Iacocca led the fundraising campaign to enable Lehigh University to adapt and use vacant buildings formerly owned by Bethlehem Steel, including Iacocca Hall on the Mountaintop Campus of Lehigh University. Today these structures house the College of Education, the biology and chemical engineering departments, and The Iacocca Institute, which is focused on global competitiveness. Iacocca played Park Commissioner Lido in “Sons and Lovers”, the 44th episode of Miami Vice, which premiered on May 9, 1986. The name of the character is his birth name, which was not used in the public sphere due to the trouble of mispronunciation or misspelling. Iacocca was married to Mary McCleary on September 29, 1956. They had two daughters. Mary Iacocca died from type 1 diabetes on May 15, 1983. Before her death, Iacocca became a strong advocate for better medical treatment of type 1 diabetes patients, who frequently faced debilitating and fatal complications, and he continued this work after her death. Iacocca’s second marriage was to Peggy Johnson. They married on April 17, 1986, but in 1987, after nineteen months, Iacocca had the marriage annulled. He married for the third time in 1991 to Darrien Earle. They were divorced three years later. Iacocca resided in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, during his later life. [32] He died on July 2, 2019, at his home in Bel Air, at the age of 94. [33] The cause was complications of Parkinson’s disease. [34][35] His funeral was held on July 10, 2019 at St. Hugo of the Hills Roman Catholic Church and he was buried at White Chapel Memorial Cemetery in Troy, Michigan. Iacocca meets with President Bill Clinton on September 23, 1993. In his 2007 book Where Have All the Leaders Gone? Iacocca described how he considered running for president in 1988 and was in the planning stages of a campaign with the slogan “I Like I”, before ultimately being talked out of it by his friend Tip O’Neill. Polls at the time confirmed that he had a realistic chance of winning. Pennsylvania Governor Bob Casey discussed with Iacocca an appointment to the U. Senate in 1991 after the death of Senator John Heinz, but Iacocca declined. Politically, Iacocca supported the Republican candidate George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential election. In the 2004 presidential election, however, he endorsed Bush’s opponent, Democrat John Kerry. [38] In Michigan’s 2006 gubernatorial race, Iacocca appeared in televised political ads endorsing Republican candidate Dick DeVos, [39] who lost. Iacocca endorsed New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson for President in the 2008 presidential election. In 2012, he endorsed Mitt Romney for President. On December 3, 2007, Iacocca launched a website to encourage open dialogue about the challenges of contemporary society. He introduced topics such as health care costs, and the United States’ lag in developing alternative energy sources and hybrid vehicles. The site also promotes his book Where Have All the Leaders Gone. It provides an interactive means for users to rate presidential candidates by the qualities Iacocca believes they should possess: curiosity, creativity, communication, character, courage, conviction, charisma, competence and common sense. In 1985, Iacocca received the S. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a Private Citizen, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. The high amount of publicity that Iacocca received during his turnaround of Chrysler made him a celebrity and gave him a lasting impact in popular culture. In addition to his acting role in Miami Vice, Iacocca also made appearances on Good Morning America, Late Night With David Letterman and the 1985 Bob Hope TV special Bob Hope Buys NBC? [42] while concurrently it was common to see depictions of elderly, bespeckled businessmen with charismatic, salesman-like personas, such as in an ad campaign by the Rainier Brewing Company. [43] Iacocca’s image was also invoked by rival automaker Ford in the marketing campaign for the 1993 Mercury Villager minivan, which depicted a competing car company lead by an unhappy boss with a physical resemblance to Iacocca viewing the Villager with consternation because it is outselling their minivan. [44] Fictional businessmen and middle managers, such as Michael Scott on The Office, have been shown reading Iacocca’s books and attempting to emulate his methods. In a manner similar to Ronald Reagan, period pieces produced in subsequent decades have used images of Iacocca and the Chrysler K-car to invoke the 1980s. The 2009 film Watchmen, which is set in an alternative history 1985, took this in a unique direction by showing Iacocca being assassinated by the film’s antagonists, which has been said to have angered Iacocca when he learned about it. Iacocca, portrayed by Jon Bernthal, is a major character in the 2019 film Ford v Ferrari, which is a dramatization of the 1960s Ford GT40 program. The film was released shortly after Iacocca’s death. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
  • Date of Creation: 1961
  • Color: Black & White
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print
  • Antique: No
  • Type: Photograph

GERONIMO APACHE Indians 1886 ARRESTED, TEXAS 1960s AJ Macdonald Photo

GERONIMO APACHE Indians 1886 ARRESTED, TEXAS 1960s AJ Macdonald Photo

GERONIMO APACHE Indians 1886 ARRESTED, TEXAS 1960s AJ Macdonald Photo

GERONIMO APACHE Indians 1886 ARRESTED, TEXAS 1960s AJ Macdonald Photo. Size is approximately 7×9 to 8×10 inches. If significantly smaller or larger the specific size will be accurately described. These original and vintage press photographs come from the archives of various press agencies such as. PIX Publishing, Philadelphia Inquirer, and San Francisco Examiner, among many others. As it is a vintage press photo, it may contain wrinkles, creases, grease paint or other markings, paper loss or tears. Please study the scans carefully to assess condition or feel free to ask questions, as they will be promptly answered. Please visit our store to see more vintage press photographs! Heavier orders will be priced on a case-by-case basis. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “do1969-market” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Size Type/Largest Dimension: Medium (Up to 10\
  • Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  • Date of Creation: 1960-1969
  • Featured Refinements: Press Photo
  • Color: Black & White
  • Photo Type: Gelatin Silver
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print
  • Antique: No
  • Image Color: Black & White
  • Original/Licensed Reprint: Original
  • Features: Press Photograph
  • Material: Paper
  • Production Technique: Gelatin-Silver Print
  • Type: Photograph

1930 India NOBEL PRIZE Physicist Sir CV Raman press photo S. LEWIS INDIAN

1930 India NOBEL PRIZE Physicist Sir CV Raman press photo S. LEWIS INDIAN

1930 India NOBEL PRIZE Physicist Sir CV Raman press photo S. LEWIS INDIAN

A fantastically rare photo of Nobel Prize winners Sir CV Raman and Sinclair Lewis in Sweden measuring 8X10 inches. He was born near a small village in Tiruchirapalli to R. Chandrasekhara Iyer and Parvathi Ammal. His father, initially a school teacher, became a lecturer in mathematics and physics in a college in Vishakhapatnam. Raman studied in St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School at Vishakapatnam. He was a brilliant student and passed his matriculation examination when he was just 11. At the age of 13 he passed his F. Examination (equivalent to today’s intermediate examination) with a scholarship. He joined the Presidency College in Madras in 1902 and received his B. In physics in 1904. He topped the exams and won a gold medal. Three years later, he earned his M. Career Though he was deeply interested in science, he appeared for the Financial Civil Service (FCS) examination at the insistence of his father. He topped the examination and went to Calcutta in 1907 to join the Indian Finance Department as Assistant Accountant General. Still his heart was in scientific research and he began conducting research at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Sciences during his free time. His job was very hectic, yet he was so dedicated towards science that he often spent nights at research. Even though the facilities available at the association were very limited, it did not deter Raman at all who went on to publish his findings in leading international journals like’Nature’,’The Philosophical Magazine’, and’Physics Review’. During this time, his research was basically in the areas of vibrations and acoustics. In 1917, he got the opportunity to join the University of Calcutta as the first Palit Professor of Physics. Raman happily resigned from his government post to take up this position though the new job paid much less than the previous one. Such was his dedication to science. In 1919, he was made the Honorary Secretary of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, a post he held till 1933. He was very popular and many students gathered around him, attracted by his immense knowledge of science. During the late 1920s he experimented on the scattering of light by observing the behavior of monochromatic light which penetrated transparent materials and fell on a spectrograph. This led to the discovery of what came to be known as’Raman Effect’ which he presented at a meeting of scientists in 1928. He was invited by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore to become its Director. He accepted the post in 1933, becoming the first Indian to hold this post. He served as the director till 1937 though he continued as the head of the Physics Department till 1948. In 1948 he established the Raman Research Institute (RRI) in Bangalore for conducting scientific research in different fields of physics. He continued with his research in the institute till his death. Major Works He is best known for discovering the’Raman Effect’, or the inelastic scattering of a photon. He showed through experimentation that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This was a ground breaking discovery in early 20th century physics. Awards & Achievements He won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman Effect”, becoming the first Indian to win a Nobel Prize in the sciences. He was honored with the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 1954 in recognition of his invaluable contributions to the field of science. Personal Life & Legacy He married Lokasundari Ammal in 1907 and had two sons with her-Chandrasekhar and Radhakrishnan. He lived a long and productive life and was active till the very end. He died in 1970 at the age of 82. Trivia This great scientist was the paternal uncle of another excellent scientist and Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. A Child Genius Tiruchirapalli is a town on the banks of the river Cauvery. Chandrasekhara Ayyar was a teacher in a school there. He was a scholar in Physics and Mathematics. His wife was Parvathi Ammal. Their second son was born on 7th November 1888. They named the boy Venkata Raman. He was also called Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman or C. Raman grew up in an atmosphere of music, Sanskrit literature and Science. He stood first in every class and was. Talked about as a child genius. He joined the B. Class of the Presidency College. In the year 1905, he was the only boy who passed in the first class. He won a gold medal, too. He joined the M. Class in the same college and chose Physics (study of matter and energy) as the main subject of study. Love of science, enthusiasm for work and the curiosity to learn new things were natural to Raman. Nature had also given him the power of concentration and intelligence. He used to read more than what was taught in the class. When doubts arose he would set down questions like’How? And’Is this true? In the Margin in the textbooks. The works of the German scientist Helmhotlz (1821 – 1891) and the English scientist Lord Raleigh (1842 – 1919) on acoustics (the study of sound) influenced Raman. He took immense interest in the study of sound. When he was eighteen years of age, one of his research papers was -published in the’Philosophical Magazine’ of England. Later another paper was published in the scientific journal’Nature’. Officer – Scientist Raman’s elder brother C. Ayyar was in the’Indian Audit and Accounts Service’ I. Raman also wanted to enter the same department. So he sat for the competitive examination. The day before this examination, the results of the M. He had passed in first class recording the highest marks in Madras University up to that time. He stood first in the I. On May 6, 1907, Raman married Lokasundari Ammal. At the age of nineteen, Raman held a high post in the government. He was appointed as the Assistant Accountant General in the Finance Department in Calcutta. And the same year something happened to give a new turn to his life. 210, Bow Bazaar Street One evening Raman was returning from his office in a tramcar. He saw the name plate of the’Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science’ at 210, Bow Bazaar Street. Immediately he got off the tram and went in. Amritlal Sircar was the Honarary Secretary of the Association. There were spacious rooms and old scientific instruments, which could be used for demonstration of experiments. Raman asked whether he could conduct research there in his spare time. Raman took up a house adjoining the Association. A door was provided between his house and the laboratory. His mornings and nights were devoted to research. This gave him full satisfaction. So he continued his ceaseless activities in Calcutta. From Accounts to Science At that time Burma and India were under a single government. In 1909, Raman was transferred to. Rangoon, the capital of Burma. When Chandrasekhara Ayyar passed away in 1910, Raman came to Madras on six months’ leave. After completing the last rites, Raman spent the rest of his leave period doing research in the Madras University laboratories. The Science College of Calcutta University was started in 1915. There a chair for Physics was established in memory of Taraknath Palit, a generous man. Raman was appointed Professor. He sacrificed the powerful post in the government, which brought a good salary. The Indian Science Congress was started in 1913. Its first session was held in 1914. Asuthosh Mukherjee was the President. Raman was the President of the Physics section. Later he worked for many years as the Secretary of the Science Congress. He presided over its annual sessions in 1929 and 1948. Professor Raman In 1917, at the age of 29, Raman became the Palit Professor. He continued research along with the new assignment. Raman was very deeply interested in musical instruments such as the Veena, the Violin, the Mridangam and the Tabala. He began to work on them. Around 1918 he explained the complex vibrations of the strings of musical instruments. He later found out the characteristic tones emitted by the Mridangam, the Tabala etc. Amritlal Sircar, who was devoting all his time to the welfare of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, passed away in 1919. Professor Raman became its Honarary Secretary. Two laboratories – those of the College and of the Association – were under him; and this gave a new stimulus to his researches. Both his body and his mind could do all the work that had to be done. Many students came to him from different parts of the country for post-graduate studies and research. 210, Bow Bazaar Street and the University Science College Laboratory – these became the active research centers of India. Research workers like Meghnad Saha and S. Mitra, who became famous later, worked at these centres. The Great Teacher That was a time when Raman was completely immersed in experiments and research. According to the terms of the Palit Chair, he could have remained free from teaching work, doing research only. But Raman had great pleasure in teaching. Students were inspired by his lectures. They were eager to listen to him. He would not stick to one particular textbook. His lectures brought the fragrance of fresh research. They reflected Raman’s great curiosity about the secrets of nature. Usually the lecture was of an hour’s duration. Forgetting the time in the discussion of the subject, Professor Raman would sometimes lecture for two or three hours. Any doubt or question from a student would stimulate new scientific ideas. Not a Minute to Waste Absorbed in experiments, it was not unusual for him to forget food and sleep. Sometimes working late at night, he would sleep in the laboratory on one of the tables. In the mornings too, most of his time was spent in the laboratory. He worked in informal clothes. At 9.30 a. He would rush home. After a shave and a bath he would dress up and send for a taxi. He Would finish his breakfast in two or three minutes and get into the taxi. Racing over a distance of four miles, he would reach the class on time. He never wasted time. I n England The Congress of the Universities of the British Empire met in 1921 in London. Raman went to England as the represen- tative of Calcutta University. This was his first visit abroad. Raman lectured in the’Physical Society’ of London. People came in large numbers to listen to him. He was introduced to J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford, the famous English Physicists. Paul’s Church in London. A whisper at one point of the church tower is heard clearly at another point. This effect, produced by the reflection of sound, aroused his curiosity. The Blue of the Sea Raman’s journey to England and back was by sea. The deep blue color of the Mediterranean Sea interested the scientist in him. Was the blue due to the reflection of the blue sky? If so, how could it appear in the absence of light? Even when big waves rolled over the surface, the blue remained. As he thought over the problem, it flashed to him that the blue color might be caused by the scatter- ing of the sun’s light by water molecules. He turned over this idea in his mind again and gains. Immediately after his return to Calcutta, he plunged into experiments. Within a month, he prepared a research paper and sent it to the Royal Society of London. Next year he published a lengthy article on the molecular scattering of light. Raman never held the wrong belief that research could be carried out only with foreign-made or very complicated equipment. No doubt, he imported some equipment. But he prepared much of the equipment he used with the help of his students. New Contacts Scientists of many countries appreciated the research papers of Raman and his colleagues. The Royal Society, the oldest and the most important science society of England, honored Raman in 1924 by electing his as its’Fellow’ (that is, a member). The annual session of’The British Association for the Cultivation of Science’ was held in the same year in Toronto (Canada). Raman inaugurated the seminar on the scattering of light. Millikan, the famous American Physicist, who also attended, was full of admiration for Raman. They became fast friends too. At the Mount Wilson Observatory in California U. A, a telescope of 100-inch width was in use. Those were the times when discoveries in the field of astronomy (study of stars and planets and their movements) filled people with wonder. Raman was always eager to learn new things. He spent a couple of days onMount Wilson. During the nights he viewed the Nebula bright or dark patch in the sky caused by distant stars or a cloud of gas or dust. Through the telescope and was thrilled. He went to Russia in 1925 to participate in the twohundredth anniversary of the’Russian Academy of Sciences’. The Guide Many scholars were working in the Calcutta laboratories to unlock the secrets of sound and light. To all of them Professor Raman was the’Guru’ and the leader. He had observed the blue color of the deep glaciers (mass of ice or snow) in the Alps mountain ranges. Taking the clue from this, some of the research workers studied some scattering of light in ice and quartz crystals. They also studied the scattering of light in liquids such as pure water and alcohol, as well as in vapors and gases. With a complete mental picture of the phenomenon, Raman would proceed to experiment systematically. After that he would write the research paper based on the results of the experiments and arrange for its early publication. Sometimes it would be late in the day by the time the final copy was prepared. Then he would enjoy a feast of Rasagulla with his students. He started’The Indian Journal of Physics’ in 1926 to make the prompt publication of research papers possible. Raman wanted the young men working with him to take up indepenent positions and to serve the nation. He felt that his laboratory was a centre of training for young talent, but not a permanent storehouse. Raman’s research on sound became famous allover the world. Handbuck der Physic’, a German Encyclopaedia of Physics, was published in 1927. Raman was the only foreign scientist invited to contribute an article to it. Raman Effect Sometimes a rainbow appears and delights our eyes. We see in it shades of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The white ray of the sun includes all these colors. When a beam of sunlight is passed through a glass prism a patch of these color- bands are seen. This is called the spectrum. The Spectro- meter is an apparatus used to study the spectrum. Spectral lines in it are characteristic of the light passing through the prism. A beam of light that causes a single spectral line is said to be monochromatic. When a beam of monochromatic light passes through a transparent substance (a substance which allows light to pass through it), the beam is scattered. Raman spent a long time in the study of the scattered light.. On February 28, 1928, he observed two low intensity spectral line corresponding to the incident mono- chromatic light. Years of his labor had borne fruit. It was clear that though the incident light was monochromatic, the scattered light due to it, was not monochromatic. Thus Raman’s experiments discovered a phenomenon which was lying hidden in nature. The 16th of March 1928 is a memorable day in the history f science. On that day a meeting was held under the joint auspices of the South Indian Science Association and the Science Club of Central College, Bangalore; Raman was the Chief Guest. He announced the new phenomenon discovered by him to the world. He also acknowledged wit h affection the assistance given by K. Krishnan and Venkateshwaran, who were his students. The phenomenon attracted the attention of research workers all over the world. It became famous as the’Raman Effect’. The spectral lines in the scattered light were known as’Raman Lines’. Is light wave-like or particle-like? This question has been discussed from time to time by scientists. The Raman Effect confirmed that light was made up of particles known as’photons’. It helped in the study of the molecular and crystal structures of different substances. World-Wide Interest in Raman Effect Investigations making use of the Raman Effect began in many countries. During the first twelve years after its discovery, about 1800 research papers were published on various aspects of it and about 2500 chemical compounds were studied. Raman Effect was highly praised as one of the greatest discoveries of the third decade of this century. After the’lasers’ (devices that produce intense beams of light, their name coming from the initial letters of’Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) came into use in the 1960′s, it became easier to get monochromatic light of very high intensity for experiments. This brought back scientific interest in Raman Effect, and the interest remains alive to this day. He World Honors Raman Raman received many honors from all over the world for his achievement. In 1928 the Science Society of Rome awarded the Matteucci Medal. In 1929 the British Government knighted him; thereafter Professor Raman came to be known as Professor Sir C.. The Royal Society of London awarded the Hughes Medal in 1930. Honorary doctorate degrees were awarded by the Universities of Freiburg (Germany), Glasgow(England), Paris (France), Bombay, Benaras, Dacca, Patna, Mysore and several others. The Nobel Prize, Too The highest award a scientist or a writer can get is the Nobel Prize. In 1930, the Swedish Academy of Sciences chose Raman to receive the Nobel Prize for Physics. No Indian and no Asian had received the Nobel Prize for Physics up to that time. At the ceremony for the award, Raman used alcohol to demonstrate the Raman Effect. Later in the evening alcoholic drinks were served at the dinner. But Raman did not touch them. He remained loyal to the Indian traditions. A Keen Eye However minute the results of an experiment, they could not escape the searching eyes of Raman. And his mind retained every detail of what he observed. An incident, which took place at Walter, the seat of Andhra University, may be mentioned. After the discovery of the Raman Effect, spectra of different substances were being studied there. On one of his visits there, Raman found the research workers puzzled at not getting the expected spectral lines. Raman examined the plate containing the spectrum and exclaimed with joy, There it is, you see! He immediately got a projector and made the weak spectral lines clearly visible on the white screen. In Bangalore He came to Bangalore as the Director of the Tata Institute (the Indian Institute of Science) in 1933. The Tata Institute soon became famous for the study of crystals. The diffraction of light (the very slight bending of light around corners) by ultrasonic waves (high frequency sound waves which we cannot hear) in a liquid was elegantly explained by Raman and Nagendranath. This became known as the’Raman-Nath Theory’. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman[2] (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India presently called as Tamil Nadu, who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. [3] In 1954, India honoured him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. [4][5] Contents 1 Early education 2 Career 3 Personal life 4 Controversies 4.1 The Nobel Prize 4.2 Lattice dynamics 5 Achievements 6 Honours and awards 7 Archive of Raman Research Papers 8 Death 9 Posthumous recognition and contemporary references 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Early education Raman’s father initially taught in a school in Thiruvanaikaval, became a lecturer in mathematics and physics in Mrs. Narasimha Rao College, Visakhapatnam (then Vishakapatnam) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, and later joined Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai). [1][6] At an early age, Raman moved to the city of Visakhapatnam and studied at St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. Raman passed his matriculation examination at the age of 11 and he passed his F. Examination (equivalent to today’s Intermediate exam, PUCPDC and +2) with a scholarship at the age of 13. In 1902, Raman joined Presidency College in Madras where his father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics. [7] In 1904 he passed his Bachelor of Arts examination of University of Madras. He stood first and won the gold medal in physics. In 1907 he gained his Master of Sciences degree with the highest distinctions from University of Madras. [1] Career In the year 1917, Raman resigned from his government service after he was appointed the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. At the same time, he continued doing research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta, where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta. Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal On 28 February 1928, Raman led experiments at the IACS with collaborators, including K. Krishnan, on the scattering of light, when he discovered what now is called the Raman effect. [8] A detailed account of this period is reported in the biography by G. [5] It was instantly clear that this discovery was of huge value. It gave further proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman had a complicated professional relationship with K. Krishnan, who surprisingly did not share the award, but is mentioned prominently even in the Nobel lecture. [9] Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon, and Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929. Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was conferred a knighthood, and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities. Raman was confident of winning the Nobel Prize in Physics as well but was disappointed when the Nobel Prize went to Owen Richardson in 1928 and to Louis de Broglie in 1929. He was so confident of winning the prize in 1930 that he booked tickets in July, even though the awards were to be announced in November, and would scan each day’s newspaper for announcement of the prize, tossing it away if it did not carry the news. [10] He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect”. [11] He was the first Asian and first non-white to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him Rabindranath Tagore (also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Raman and Suri Bhagavantam discovered the quantum photon spin in 1932, which further confirmed the quantum nature of light. [12] Raman had association with the Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi; he attended the foundation ceremony of BHU[13] and delivered lectures on “Mathematics” and “Some new paths in physics” during the lecture series organised at BHU from 5 to 8 February 1916. [14] He also held the position of permanent visiting professor at BHU. [15] During his tenure at IISc, he recruited the talented electrical engineering student, G. Ramachandran, who later went on to become a distinguished X-ray crystallographer. Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam. [16] He was also interested in the properties of other musical instruments based on forced vibrations such as the violin. He also investigated the propagation of sound in whispering galleries. [17] Raman’s work on acoustics was an important prelude, both experimentally and conceptually, to his later work on optics and quantum mechanics. [18] Raman and his student, Nagendra Nath, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in the celebrated Raman-Nath theory. [19] Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have enabled optical communication components based on laser systems. Raman was succeeded by Debendra Mohan Bose as the Palit Professor in 1932. In 1933, Raman left IACS to join Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as its first Indian director. He also started the company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. (now known as TCM Limited) which manufactured potassium chlorate for the match industry[21] in 1943 along with Dr. The Company subsequently established four factories in Southern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India. [22] In 1948, Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behaviour of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behaviour of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite, pearly feldspar, agate, opal, and pearls). Among his other interests were the optics of colloids, electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision. Raman retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, a year later. He served as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82. [23] They had two sons, Chandrasekhar and radio-astronomer Radhakrishnan. Raman was the paternal uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1983) for his discovery of the Chandrasekhar limit in 1931 and for his subsequent work on the nuclear reactions necessary for stellar evolution. Controversies The Nobel Prize In the past, several questions were raised about Raman not sharing the Prize with the Russian scientists G. Mandelstam, who had observed the same effect in the case of crystals. According to the Physics Nobel Committee:(1) The Russians did not come to an independent interpretation of their discovery as they cited Raman’s article. (2) They observed the effect only in crystals, whereas Raman and K. Krishnan in solids, liquids and gases. With that, he proved the universal nature of the effect. (3) The uncertainties concerning the explanation of the intensity of Raman- and Infrared lines in the spectra could be explained during the last year. (4) The Raman method has been applied with great success in different fields of molecular physics. (5) The Raman effect has effectively helped to check the actual problems of the symmetry – properties of molecules thus the problems concerning the nuclear-spin in the atomic physics. The Nobel Committee proposed Raman’s name to the Swedish National Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, for the Nobel Prize for the year 1930. [24] Lattice dynamics At the end of the 1930s and the beginning of the 1940s, scientists observed diffuse spots in X-ray Laue photographs that were difficult to explain theoretically. Already at this stage, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman suggested a theory of his own and criticised alternative solutions that were largely based on thermal theories proposed by Max Born and Peter Debye. This led to a conflict between Born and Raman. In this dispute, Born received support from the British crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale. [25] The dispute between Raman and Born involved scientific as well as social elements. Whereas Raman’s support came mainly from his own experiments and from his colleagues in Bangalore, Born used his social and professional network to enlist scientists as allies for his cause. Although initially, in the early 1940s, Born’s theory was not generally accepted even in England, he eventually succeeded in marginalising the rival theory of Raman. The controversy has often been dealt with by physicists and historians of science, who, however, have too often relied on Born’s autobiographical work. As has been shown, parts of this work, especially as it relates to Born’s Indian visit and his contact with Raman, need careful and critical reading. In particular, the issue of Raman’s resignation from the directorship of the IIS had nothing to do with Born’s stay in India, such as indicated in his autobiography. [26] Up to some extent, this controversy led to the fact that Max Born had to wait for the Nobel Prize. [27] Achievements During a voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman noticed the blue colour of glaciers and the Mediterranean sea. He was motivated to discover the reason for the blue colour. Raman carried out experiments regarding the scattering of light by water and transparent blocks of ice which explained the phenomenon. Raman employed monochromatic light from a mercury arc lamp which penetrated transparent material and was allowed to fall on a spectrograph to record its spectrum. He detected lines in the spectrum which he later called Raman lines. He presented his theory at a meeting of scientists in Bangalore on 16 March 1928, and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In Munich the physicists were unable to reproduce Raman’s results. This led to scepticism. However, Peter Pringsheim was the first German to reproduce Raman’s results successfully. He sent spectra to Arnold Sommerfeld. Pringsheim was the first to coin the term “Raman effect” and Raman lines. [28] Honours and awards Bust of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum. Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. Knight Bachelor Nobel Prize in Physics Bharat Ratna – Highest civilian award of the Republic of India Lenin Peace Prize Fellow of the Royal Society He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society[2] early in his career (1924) and knighted in 1929. He resigned from the Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1968 for unrecorded reasons, the only Indian FRS ever to do so. [29] In 1930 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1941 he was awarded the Franklin Medal. In 1954 he was awarded the Bharat Ratna. [30] He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957. In 1998, the American Chemical Society and Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science recognised Raman’s discovery as an International Historic Chemical Landmark. [31] India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928. [32] Archive of Raman Research Papers The Raman Research Institute, founded by Raman after his tenure at IISc, curates a collection of Raman’s research papers, and articles on the web. [33] Death This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) At the end of October 1970, Raman collapsed in his laboratory, the valves of his heart had given way. He was moved to the hospital and the doctors gave him four days to live. He survived and after a few days refused to stay in the hospital as he preferred to die in the gardens of his Institute surrounded by his followers. Two days before Raman died, he told one of his former students, Do not allow the journals of the Academy to die, for they are the sensitive indicators of the quality of science being done in the country and whether science is taking root in it or not. That same evening, Raman met with the Board of Management of his Institute and discussed (from his bed) with them any proceedings with regards to the Institute’s management. Raman died from natural causes early next morning on 21 November 1970. Harry Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 – January 10, 1951) was an American writer and playwright. In 1930, he became the first writer from the United States (and the first from the Americas) to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, which was awarded for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters. His works are known for their critical views of American capitalism and materialism in the interwar period. [1] He is also respected for his strong characterizations of modern working women. Mencken wrote of him, [If] there was ever a novelist among us with an authentic call to the trade… It is this red-haired tornado from the Minnesota wilds. The Sinclair Lewis Boyhood Home museum. Born February 7, 1885, in the village of Sauk Centre, Minnesota, Lewis began reading books at a young age and kept a diary. He had two older siblings, Fred (born 1875) and Claude (born 1878). His father, Edwin J. Lewis, was a physician and a stern disciplinarian who had difficulty relating to his sensitive, unathletic third son. Lewis’s mother, Emma Kermott Lewis, died in 1891. The following year, Edwin Lewis married Isabel Warner, whose company young Lewis apparently enjoyed. Throughout his lonely boyhood, the ungainly Lewis-tall, extremely thin, stricken with acne and somewhat pop-eyed-had trouble making friends and pined after various local girls. At the age of 13, he unsuccessfully ran away from home, wanting to become a drummer boy in the Spanish-American War. [3] In late 1902, Lewis left home for a year at Oberlin Academy (the then-preparatory department of Oberlin College) to qualify for acceptance at Yale University. While at Oberlin, he developed a religious enthusiasm that waxed and waned for much of his remaining teenage years. He entered Yale in 1903, but did not receive his bachelor’s degree until 1908, having taken time off to work at Helicon Home Colony, Upton Sinclair’s cooperative-living colony in Englewood, New Jersey, and to travel to Panama. Lewis’s unprepossessing looks, “fresh” country manners and seemingly self-important loquacity made it difficult for him to win and keep friends at Oberlin and Yale. He did initiate a few relatively long-lived friendships among students and professors, some of whom recognized his promise as a writer. [4] Lewis later became an atheist. Lewis’s earliest published creative work-romantic poetry and short sketches-appeared in the Yale Courant and the Yale Literary Magazine, of which he became an editor. After graduation Lewis moved from job to job and from place to place in an effort to make ends meet, writing fiction for publication and to chase away boredom. Lewis’s first published book was Hike and the Aeroplane, a Tom Swift-style potboiler that appeared in 1912 under the pseudonym Tom Graham. Sinclair Lewis’s first serious novel, Our Mr. Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man, appeared in 1914, followed by The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life (1915) and The Job (1917). That same year also saw the publication of another potboiler, The Innocents: A Story for Lovers, an expanded version of a serial story that had originally appeared in Woman’s Home Companion. Free Air, another refurbished serial story, was published in 1919. Lewis with Thompson and son in 1935. Serving as a U. Army lieutenant during World War II, Wells Lewis was killed in action on October 29 amid Allied efforts to rescue the “Lost Battalion” in France. [6][7] Dean Acheson, the future Secretary of State, was a neighbor and family friend in Washington, and observed that Sinclair’s literary “success was not good for that marriage, or for either of the parties to it, or for Lewis’s work” and the family moved out of town. Lewis divorced Grace on April 16, 1925. [9] On May 14, 1928, he married Dorothy Thompson, a political newspaper columnist. Their marriage had virtually ended by 1937, and they divorced in 1942. Upon moving to Washington, D. Lewis devoted himself to writing. As early as 1916, he began taking notes for a realistic novel about small-town life. Work on that novel continued through mid-1920, when he completed Main Street, which was published on October 23, 1920. [12] His biographer Mark Schorer wrote that the phenomenal success of Main Street “was the most sensational event in twentieth-century American publishing history”. [13] Lewis’s agent had the most optimistic projection of sales at 25,000 copies. [15] According to biographer Richard Lingeman, “Main Street made [Lewis] rich-earning him about 4 million current [2018] dollars”. Sinclair Lewis’s former residence in Washington, D. Lewis followed up this first great success with Babbitt (1922), a novel that satirized the American commercial culture and boosterism. Lewis continued his success in the 1920s with Arrowsmith (1925), a novel about the challenges faced by an idealistic doctor. It was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, which Lewis declined, [17] still upset that Main Street had not won the prize. [18] It was adapted as a 1931 Hollywood film directed by John Ford and starring Ronald Colman which was nominated for four Academy Awards. Next Lewis published Elmer Gantry (1927), which depicted an evangelical minister as deeply hypocritical. The novel was denounced by many religious leaders and banned in some U. It was adapted for the screen more than a generation later as the basis of the 1960 movie starring Burt Lancaster, who earned a Best Actor Oscar for his performance in the title role. The film won two more awards as well. Lewis next published Dodsworth (1929), a novel about the most affluent and successful members of American society. He portrayed them as leading essentially pointless lives in spite of great wealth and advantages. The book was adapted for the Broadway stage in 1934 by Sidney Howard, who also wrote the screenplay for the 1936 film version directed by William Wyler, which was a great success at the time. The film is still highly regarded; in 1990, it was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry, and in 2005 Time magazine named it one of the “100 Best Movies” of the past 80 years. During the late 1920s and 1930s, Lewis wrote many short stories for a variety of magazines and publications. “Little Bear Bongo” (1930) is a tale about a bear cub who wants to escape the circus in search of a better life in the real world, first published in Cosmopolitan magazine. [20][21] The story was acquired by Walt Disney Pictures in 1940 for a possible feature film. World War II sidetracked those plans until 1947. Disney used the story (now titled “Bongo”) as part of its feature Fun and Fancy Free. In 1930 Lewis won the Nobel Prize in Literature, the first writer from the United States to receive the award, after he had been nominated by Henrik Schück, member of the Swedish Academy. [22] In the Academy’s presentation speech, special attention was paid to Babbitt. In his Nobel Lecture, Lewis praised Theodore Dreiser, Willa Cather, Ernest Hemingway, and other contemporaries, but also lamented that “in America most of us-not readers alone, but even writers-are still afraid of any literature which is not a glorification of everything American, a glorification of our faults as well as our virtues, ” and that America is the most contradictory, the most depressing, the most stirring, of any land in the world today. ” He also offered a profound criticism of the American literary establishment: “Our American professors like their literature clear and cold and pure and very dead. Sinclair Lewis examines Lewis Browne’s new novel as they begin their 1943 lecture tour. After winning the Nobel Prize, Lewis wrote eleven more novels, ten of which appeared in his lifetime. The best remembered is It Can’t Happen Here (1935), a novel about the election of a fascist to the American presidency. After praising Dreiser as “pioneering, ” that he “more than any other man, marching alone, usually unappreciated, often hated, has cleared the trail from Victorian and Howellsian timidity and gentility in American fiction to honesty and boldness and passion of life” in his Nobel Lecture in December 1930, [23] in March 1931 Lewis publicly accused Dreiser of plagiarizing a book by Dorothy Thompson, Lewis’s wife, which led to a well-publicized fight, wherein Dreiser repeatedly slapped Lewis. Thompson initially made the accusation in 1928 regarding her work “The New Russia” and Dreiser’s “Dreiser Goes to Russia”, though the New York Times also linked the dispute to competition between Dreiser and Lewis over the Nobel Prize. [24][25] Dreiser fired back that Sinclair’s 1928 novel Arrowsmith (adapted later that year as a feature film) was unoriginal and that Dreiser himself was first approached to write it, which was disputed by the wife of Arrowsmith’s subject, microbiologist Dr. [26][25] The feud carried on for some months. [27] In 1944, however, Lewis campaigned to have Dreiser recognized by the American Academy of Arts and Letters. After an alcoholic binge in 1937, Lewis checked in for treatment to the Austen Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. His doctors gave him a blunt assessment that he needed to decide whether he was going to live without alcohol or die by it, one or the other. “[28] Lewis checked out after ten days, lacking any “fundamental understanding of his problem, as one of his physicians wrote to a colleague. In the autumn of 1940, Lewis visited his old acquaintance, William Ellery Leonard, in Madison, Wisconsin. Leonard arranged a meeting with the chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a tour of the campus. Lewis immediately became enthralled with the university and the city and offered to remain and teach a course in creative writing in the upcoming semester. For a month he was quite enamored of his professorial role. [29] Suddenly, on November 7, after giving only five classes to his select group of 24 students, he announced that he had taught them all that he knew. He left Madison the next day. In the 1940s, Lewis and rabbi-turned-popular author Lewis Browne frequently appeared on the lecture platform together, [31] touring the United States and debating before audiences of as many as 3,000 people, addressing such questions as Has the Modern Woman Made Good? “, “The Country Versus the City”, “Is the Machine Age Wrecking Civilization? “, and “Can Fascism Happen Here? The pair were described as “the Gallagher and Shean of the lecture circuit” by Lewis biographer Richard Lingeman. In the early 1940s, Lewis lived in Duluth, Minnesota. [33] During this time, he wrote the novel Kingsblood Royal (1947), set in the fictional city of Grand Republic, Minnesota, an enlarged and updated version of Zenith. Kingsblood Royal was a powerful and very early contribution to the civil rights movement. In 1943, Lewis went to Hollywood to work on a script with Dore Schary, who had just resigned as executive head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s low-budget film department to concentrate on writing and producing his own films. The resulting screenplay was Storm In the West, “a traditional American western”[34] – except for the fact that it was also an allegory of World War II, with primary villain Hygatt (Hitler) and his henchmen Gribbles (Goebbels) and Gerrett (Goering) plotting to take over the Franson Ranch, the Poling Ranch, and so on. The screenplay was deemed too political by MGM studio executives and was shelved, and the film was never made. Storm In the West was finally published in 1963, with a foreword by Schary detailing the work’s origins, the authors’ creative process, and the screenplay’s ultimate fate. Sinclair Lewis had been a frequent visitor to Williamstown, Massachusetts. In 1946, he rented Thorvale Farm on Oblong Road. By 1948, Lewis had created a gentleman’s farm consisting of 720 acres (290 ha) of agricultural and forest land. His intended residence in Williamstown was short-lived because of his medical problems. Lewis died in Rome from advanced alcoholism on January 10, 1951, aged 65. His body was cremated and his remains were buried at Greenwood Cemetery in Sauk Centre, Minnesota. His final novel World So Wide (1951) was published posthumously. William Shirer, a friend and admirer of Lewis, disputes accounts that Lewis died of alcoholism. He reported that Lewis had a heart attack and that his doctors advised him to stop drinking if he wanted to live. Lewis did not stop, and perhaps could not; he died when his heart stopped. In summarizing Lewis’s career, Shirer concludes:[36]. It has become rather commonplace for so-called literary critics to write off Sinclair Lewis as a novelist. Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Dos Passos, and Faulkner… Yet his impact on modern American life… Was greater than all of the other four writers together. Compared to his contemporaries, Lewis’ reputation suffered a precipitous decline among literary scholars throughout the 20th century. [37] Despite his enormous popularity during the 1920s, by the 21st century most of his works had been eclipsed in prominence by other writers with less commercial success during the same time period, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. Since the 2010s there has been renewed interest in Lewis’ work, in particular his 1935 dystopian satire It Can’t Happen Here. He has been honored by the U. Sinclair Lewis in 1914. 1912: Hike and the Aeroplane (juvenile, as Tom Graham). Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man. 1915: The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life. 1917: The Job: An American Novel. 1917: The Innocents: A Story for Lovers. Serialized in The Saturday Evening Post, May 31, June 7, June 14 and 21, 1919. 1920: Main Street: The Story of Carol Kennicott. Excerpted in Hearst’s International, October 1922. Serialized in Collier’s, February 20, March 20 and April 24, 1926. 1928: The Man Who Knew Coolidge: Being the Soul of Lowell Schmaltz, Constructive and Nordic Citizen. Serialized in Redbook, August, November and December 1932. 1934: Work of Art. 1935: It Can’t Happen Here. 1938: The Prodigal Parents. 1945: Cass Timberlane: A Novel of Husbands and Wives. Appeared in Cosmopolitan, July 1945. 1951: World So Wide (posthumous). Babbitt, Mantrap and Cass Timberline were published as Armed Services Editions during WWII. 1907: “That Passage in Isaiah”, The Blue Mule, May 1907. 1907: “Art and the Woman”, The Gray Goose, June 1907. 1911: “The Way to Rome”, The Bellman, May 13, 1911. 1915: “The Other Side of the House”, The Saturday Evening Post, November 27, 1915. 1916: “If I Were Boss”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 1 and 8, 1916. 1916: “I’m a Stranger Here Myself”, The Smart Set, August 1916. 1916: “He Loved His Country”, Everybody’s Magazine, October 1916. 1916: “Honestly If Possible”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 14, 191. 1917: “Twenty-Four Hours in June”, The Saturday Evening Post, February 17, 1917. 1917: “The Innocents”, Woman’s Home Companion, March 1917. 1917: “A Story with a Happy Ending”, The Saturday Evening Post, March 17, 1917. 1917: “Hobohemia”, The Saturday Evening Post, April 7, 1917. 1917: “The Ghost Patrol”, The Red Book Magazine, June 1917. Adapted for the silent film The Ghost Patrol (1923). 1917: “Young Man Axelbrod”, The Century, June 1917. 1917: “A Woman by Candlelight”, The Saturday Evening Post, July 28, 1917. 1917: “The Whisperer”, The Saturday Evening Post, August 11, 1917. 1917: “The Hidden People”, Good Housekeeping, September 1917. 1917: “Joy-Joy”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 20, 1917. 1918: “A Rose for Little Eva”, McClure’s, February 1918. 1918: “Slip It to’Em”, Metropolitan Magazine, March 1918. 1918: “An Invitation to Tea”, Every Week, June 1, 1918. 1918: “The Shadowy Glass”, The Saturday Evening Post, June 22, 1918. 1918: “The Willow Walk”, The Saturday Evening Post, August 10, 1918. 1918: “Getting His Bit”, Metropolitan Magazine, September 1918. 1918: “The Swept Hearth”, The Saturday Evening Post, September 21, 1918. 1918: “Jazz”, Metropolitan Magazine, October 1918. 1918: “Gladvertising”, The Popular Magazine, October 7, 1918. 1919: “Moths in the Arc Light”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 11, 1919. 1919: “The Shrinking Violet”, The Saturday Evening Post, February 15, 1919. 1919: “Things”, The Saturday Evening Post, February 22, 1919. 1919: “The Cat of the Stars”, The Saturday Evening Post, April 19, 1919. 1919: “The Watcher Across the Road”, The Saturday Evening Post, May 24, 1919. 1919: “Speed”, The Red Book Magazine, June 1919. 1919: “The Shrimp-Colored Blouse”, The Red Book Magazine, August 1919. 1919: “The Enchanted Hour”, The Saturday Evening Post, August 9, 1919. 1919: “Danger – Run Slow”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 18 and 25, 1919. 1919: “Bronze Bars”, The Saturday Evening Post, December 13, 1919. 1920: “Habaes Corpus”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 24, 1920. 1920: “Way I See It”, The Saturday Evening Post, May 29, 1920. 1920: “The Good Sport”, The Saturday Evening Post, December 11, 1920. 1921: “A Matter of Business”, Harper’s, March 1921. 1921: “Number Seven to Sagapoose”, The American Magazine, May 1921. 1921: “The Post-Mortem Murder”, The Century, May 1921. 1923: “The Hack Driver”, The Nation, August 29, 1923[42]. 1929: “He Had a Brother”, Cosmopolitan, May 1929. 1929: “There Was a Prince”, Cosmopolitan, June 1929. 1929: “Elizabeth, Kitty and Jane”, Cosmopolitan, July 1929. 1929: “Dear Editor”, Cosmopolitan, August 1929. 1929: What a Man! 1929: “Keep Out of the Kitchen”, Cosmopolitan, October 1929. 1929: “A Letter from the Queen”, Cosmopolitan, December 1929. 1930: “Youth”, Cosmopolitan, February 1930. 1930: “Noble Experiment”, Cosmopolitan, August 1930. 1930: “Little Bear Bongo”, Cosmopolitan, September 1930. Adapted for the animated feature film Fun and Fancy Free (1947). 1930: “Go East, Young Man”, Cosmopolitan, December 1930. 1931: “Let’s Play King”, Cosmopolitan, January, February and March 1931. 1931: “Pajamas”, Redbook, April 1931. 1931: “Ring Around a Rosy”, The Saturday Evening Post, June 6, 1931. 1931: “City of Mercy”, Cosmopolitan, July 1931. 1931: “Land”, The Saturday Evening Post, September 12, 1931. 1931: “Dollar Chasers”, The Saturday Evening Post, October 17 and 24, 1931. 1935: “The Hippocratic Oath”, Cosmopolitan, June 1935. 1935: “Proper Gander”, The Saturday Evening Post, July 13, 1935. 1935: Onward, Sons of Ingersoll! , Scribner’s, August 1935. 1936: “From the Queen”, Argosy, February 1936. 1941: “The Man Who Cheated Time”, Good Housekeeping, March 1941. 1941: “Manhattan Madness”, The American Magazine, September 1941. 1941: They Had Magic Then! , Liberty, September 6, 1941. 1943: “All Wives Are Angels”, Cosmopolitan, February 1943. 1943: “Nobody to Write About”, Cosmopolitan, July 1943. 1943: “Green Eyes-A Handbook of Jealousy”, Cosmopolitan, September and October 1943. The first attempt to collect all of Lewis’s short stories. Volume 1 (June 1904 – January 1916) ISBN 9780773454873. Volume 2 (August 1916 – October 1917) ISBN 9780773454897. Volume 3 (January 1918 – February 1919) ISBN 9780773454910. Volume 4 (February 1919 – May 1921) ISBN 9780773454194. Volume 5 (August 1923 – April 1931) ISBN 9780773453562. Volume 6 (June 1931 – March 1941) ISBN 9780773453067. Volume 7 (September 1941 – May 1949) ISBN 9780773452763. , The Saturday Evening Post, October 2, 1915. 1917: “For the Zelda Bunch”, McClure’s, October 1917. 1918: “Spiritualist Vaudeville”, Metropolitan Magazine, February 1918. 1919: “Adventures in Autobumming: Gasoline Gypsies”, The Saturday Evening Post, December 20, 1919. 1919: Adventures in Autobumming: Want a Lift? , The Saturday Evening Post, December 27, 1919. 1920: “Adventures in Autobumming: The Great American Frying Pan”, The Saturday Evening Post, January 3, 1920. 1934: Jayhawker: A Play in Three Acts (with Lloyd Lewis). 1936: It Can’t Happen Here with John C. 1938: Angela Is Twenty-Two (with Fay Wray). Adapted for the feature film This Is the Life (1944). 1943: Storm In the West (with Dore Schary – unproduced)[34]. 1907: “The Ultra-Modern”, The Smart Set, July 1907. 1907: “Dim Hours of Dusk”, The Smart Set, August 1907. 1907: “Disillusion”, The Smart Set, December 1907. 1909: “Summer in Winter”, People’s Magazine, February 1909. 1912: “A Canticle of Great Lovers”, Ainslee’s Magazine, July 1912. 1942: Henry Ward Beecher: An American Portrait (by Paxton Hibben; publisher: The Press of the Readers Club, NY NY). 1915: Tennis As I Play It (ghostwritten for Maurice McLoughlin)[44]. 1926: John Dos Passos’ Manhattan Transfer. 1929: Cheap and Contented Labor: The Picture of a Southern Mill Town in 1929. 1935: Selected Short Stories of Sinclair Lewis. Maule and Melville Cane. 1962: I’m a Stranger Here Myself and Other Stories (edited by Mark Schorer). 1962: Sinclair Lewis: A Collection of Critical Essays (edited by Mark Schorer). 1985: Selected Letters of Sinclair Lewis edited by John J. Koblas and Dave Page. 1997: If I Were Boss: The Early Business Stories of Sinclair Lewis (edited by Anthony Di Renzo). 2000: Minnesota Diary, 1942-46 (edited by George Killough). 2005: Go East, Young Man: Sinclair Lewis on Class in America edited by Sally E. 2005: The Minnesota Stories of Sinclair Lewis edited by Sally E. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Framing: Unframed
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Type: Photograph
  • Subject: Celebrities & Musicians
  • Region of Origin: US
  • Size Type/Largest Dimension: Medium (Up to 10\
  • Time Period Manufactured: Vintage & Antique (Pre-1940)
  • Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  • Date of Creation: 1930
  • Signed?: Unsigned
  • Color: Black & White
  • Photo Type: Gelatin Silver
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print

Stunning Ballerina Dance Dancer photo African American 1951 Negro Collins Solov

Stunning Ballerina Dance Dancer photo African American 1951 Negro Collins Solov

Stunning Ballerina Dance Dancer photo African American 1951 Negro Collins Solov

A vintage 5 1/8″ X 6 1/2″ inches photo from 1951 depicting Janet Collins receiving a kiss from Zachary Solov, Met’s chief choreographer and ballet master. In 1951 Janet Collins became the first black prima ballerina to perform with the Metropolitan Opera Ballet in New York City, New York. As such she broke one of the last major color barriers in classical ballet. As ballet master for the Metropolitan Opera from 1951 to 1958, Solov gave the company’s dance troupe greater visibility — choreographing scenes in operas such as “Carmen” and Aida. He also hired the troupe’s first African American ballerina, Janet Collins. Zachary Solov, a ballet dancer and former chief choreographer for the Metropolitan Opera Ballet, died Nov. 6 in New York City. He had been hospitalized after a heart attack and died at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center, according to Dean Temple, who is writing Solov’s authorized biography. He created dances with style and flair, Temple said, adding that pieces Zachary choreographed were intensely lively and technically demanding. Solov was trained in tap as well as ballet, and moved easily between classical dance and stage shows throughout his career. He performed on Broadway and on popular television programs. Ary Solov, 81, Dancer With Met Opera, Dies. Continue reading the main storyShare This Page. Zachary Solov, a dancer and choreographer who led the Metropolitan Opera Ballet when Rudolf Bing was the opera’s general manager, died on Saturday in New York. He was 81 and lived in Manhattan. The cause was heart failure, said Dean Temple, who is writing Mr. Solov’s authorized biography. Solov’s career was wide ranging. He danced with pioneering American ballet companies like the Littlefield Ballet, George Balanchine’s American Ballet Caravan and Eugene Loring’s Dance Players. He also partnered Carmen Miranda in the Roxy theater’s stage show and performed with American Ballet Theater before Bing invited him to be ballet master of the Metropolitan Opera’s ballet in 1951. Solov’s first actions at the Met was to engage Janet Collins as the ballet troupe’s first black star and the first black artist to be under regular contract at the Metropolitan (four years before Marian Anderson sang there). Collins for a new production of “Aida” in 1951, and later in “Carmen, ” “La Gioconda” and other operas until she left in 1954. As ballet master, Mr. Solov tried to have dance figure more prominently within Met productions despite the usual stepchild status of dance on the opera stage. Continue reading the main story. In addition to the dances he created for operas, Mr. Solov choreographed independent ballets presented by the Metropolitan. These included “Vittorio, ” in which he appeared with the ballerina Mia Slavenska in 1955, and Soirée, which he created in 1956 for Oleg Briansky and Mary Ellen Moylan, a guest artist and a star with the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo and Ballet Theater. Solov also choreographed for Metropolitan Opera performances featured on the television program Omnibus. He left the company in 1958, but was guest choreographer there until the mid-1980′s. Solov was born to deaf parents in Philadelphia and studied there at the Dauphin School of the Arts and the Littlefied Ballet School. He was a child tap-dancer, appearing with the young Honi Coles, and on radio shows like The Horn & Hardart Children’s Hour. Newsletter Sign UpContinue reading the main story. Every week, stay on top of the top-grossing Broadway shows, recent reviews, Critics’ Picks and more. You agree to receive occasional updates and special offers for The New York Times’s products and services. His association with Caroline Littlefield at her school brought him into contact with her daughters, Catherine and Dorothie, when they formed the Littlefield Ballet in the 1930′s. As one of the first professional American ballet companies outside an opera house, the troupe set new standards and later provided Balanchine with many of his first dancers in the United States. Solov moved from the Littlefield Ballet to the School of American Ballet, founded by Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein, and was sent on the 1941 Latin American tour of American Ballet Caravan, a short-lived precursor to New York City Ballet. Permanent ballet companies were few at the time and Mr. Solov, like many other classically trained dancers, appeared in stage shows. Leonid Leonidoff hired him for the Roxy. He also danced leading roles in Loring’s experimental troupe, Ballet Players, and in operettas choreographed by Balanchine for the New Opera Company. After he was drafted into the Army in 1943, Mr. Solov danced in and choreographed 35 Army revues in the United States and Asia. From 1946 to 1949 he performed with Ballet Theater: one of his major roles was in “Shadow of the Wind, ” a work considered ahead of its time and choreographed by Antony Tudor to Mahler’s Lied von der Erde. Solov also appeared on Broadway and danced on television in “Your Show of Shows” and The Fred Allen Show. ” In 1954 he choreographed “The Golden Apple for Ballet Sextette, made up of Maria Tallchief and other stars of New York City Ballet. After leaving his position at the Met he headed his own group, Zachary Solov Ballet Ensemble, and created dances for regional ballet troupes and musicals. He was the author, with William English, of a book, Basic Ballet: A New Way to Learn the Fundamentals. Solov is survived by a sister, Sylvia Rosenfeld of Philadelphia; a nephew, Arthur Rosenfeld, also of Philadelphia; and a niece, Ruthie Rosenfeld McCarthy of New York. Janet Collins, prima ballerina of the Metropolitan Opera House in the early 1950′s and one of a very few black women to become prominent in American classical ballet, died on Wednesday in Fort Worth. She was 86 and lived there. Collins taught dance, choreographed, performed on Broadway and in film and appeared frequently on television. But she was best known as the exquisitely beautiful dancer who was the first black artist to perform at the Metropolitan, four years before Marian Anderson sang there.’She was a great inspiration to me as a child in Trinidad,” the dancer and painter Geoffrey Holder said.’What she did by dancing the way she did — to be prima ballerina at the Metropolitan Opera House — gave everybody hope. Collins made her New York debut in 1949, dancing in her own choreography on a shared program at the 92nd Street Y. John Martin, dance critic of The New York Times, described her as”the most exciting young dancer who has flashed across the current scene in a long time,” calling her style an eclectic mix of modern dance and ballet.’There is a wonderful sense of aliveness in the dancer’s presence and in her moving,” Martin wrote.’She is not self-absorbed, but is dancing completely and wholesouledly for an audience. On the other hand, there is no air of showing off about it, no coyness or coquetry, but only an apparent desire to establish and maintain a communicative contact.’ He praised her for the sharp, clean precision,”the piquant tang, the arresting mental vigor” of her dancing and choreography. Collins’s next triumph came the following year on Broadway in the Cole Porter musical”Out of This World.’ Playing the role of Night, she danced an airborne solo created for her by Hanya Holm. She went from there to the Metropolitan, where she appeared as a principal dancer. She performed lead roles in”Aida,””Carmen,” the Dance of the Hours in”La Gioconda” and the Bacchanale in”Samson and Delilah. It was not until two decades after she left the Met, however, that she was to receive major attention again in New York when, in 1974, the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater paid homage to her and Pearl Primus as pioneering black women in dance. Born in New Orleans, Ms. Collins moved with her family to Los Angeles at age 4. She received her first dance training at a Catholic community center and went on to study primarily with Carmelita Maracci, one of the few ballet teachers who accepted black students, and with Lester Horton and Adolph Bolm. Stay on top of the latest in pop and jazz with reviews, interviews, podcasts and more from The New York Times music critics. She auditioned in Los Angeles for the Ballet Russe but said she had been told that she would either have to have special roles created for her or dance in white face.’I said no,” she told Anna Kisselgoff in a 1974 interview in The Times.’I sat on the steps and I cried and cried.’ But the rejection spurred her, she said, to work even harder, hard enough to be an exception. Collins danced with Katherine Dunham and performed with the Dunham company in the 1943 film musical”Stormy Weather. She also danced a solo choreographed by Jack Cole in the 1946 film”The Thrill of Brazil,” and worked with the filmmaker Maya Deren. She toured with Talley Beatty in a nightclub act that was sometimes billed as Rea and Rico De Gard to prevent speculation about the two light-skinned dancers’ race. Collins was most active during the 1950′s, when she toured with her own dance group throughout the United States and Canada and taught at academies including the School of American Ballet, affiliated with the New York City Ballet; Harkness House; and the San Francisco Ballet School. Collins is survived by a brother, Earnest, of Fort Worth, and a sister, Betty Wilkerson of Pasadena, Calif. Anet Collins broke color barriers in the 1950s when she became the first African American prima ballerina and one of the very few prominent black women in American classical ballet. Collins was born on March 17, 1917 in New Orleans, Louisiana. She and her family moved to Los Angeles, where Collins started taking private dance lessons at a Catholic community center. Collins continued her dance training with Carmelita Maracci, who was one of the few dance teachers during the time to accept black students. By the age of 15, Janet Collins was prepared to audition for Lèonide Massine and the De Basil Ballet Russe Company. Although she was accepted into the company, she declined the offer after being told that she would either need special roles created for her or dance in white face to disguise the fact that she was black. An upset Collins left the audition in tears and vowed to perfect her art so that race would not be an issue. Collins appeared in her first theatrical performance in 1940. She and Katherine Dunham’s troupe performed in the 1943 musical film Stormy Weather. Collins made her New York debut in 1949 after performing her own choreography on a shared program at the 92nd Street Y. In the same year, after two more performances, Dance Magazine named her the most outstanding debutante of the season. Collins was noticed by Zachary Solov, the ballet master of the Metropolitan Opera House at the time, in a Broadway production of Cole Porter’s Out of this World. Solov then invited Collins to join the Metropolitan Company. Janet Collins broke a color barrier on November 13, 1951 after her performance in a production of Aida. In 1952, a year after joining the corps de ballet, she became the first African American prima ballerina with the Metropolitan Opera. This marked the first time a black artist had joined the permanent company. Despite her success in New York, Collins faced racism on the road as the company toured to southern cities. As race laws kept her off of the stage, her parts were sometimes performed by understudies. Collins remained with the Met until 1954. She would go on to tour solo across the United States and Canada. She also taught at the School of American Ballet, San Francisco Ballet School, and the Harkness House. Collins passed on May 28, 2003 in Fort Worth, Texas. Janet Collins was born on March 2, 1917 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her mother was a seamstress and her father was a tailor. In 1921 when she was four Janet moved with her parents to Los Angeles, California. At the age of ten, Collins began to study dance. Her first dance training was at the Los Angeles Catholic Community Center. Ironically, Collin’s parents urged her to study painting rather than dance because at the time, art seemed to offer more opportunities to gifted African Americans than classical dance. Collins studied art on a scholarship at Los Angeles City College and later at the Los Angeles Art Center School. Collins, however, never completely abandoned dance and fortunately she attracted the attention of Adolph Bohm, Carmelita Maracci, and Mia Slavenska, all prominent dance instructors who agreed to work with her. Despite such training, Collins was rejected when she auditioned for Leonide Massine, the director of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo in 1932 at the age of fifteen. His company was performing in Los Angeles during its American tour and advertised for an aspiring young dancer to audition for the company. When Collins’ turn came, a hush fell over the dancers but when she finished the ballerinas applauded. Massine saw her talent but told her to be accepted, she would have to paint her skin white for performances. News & World Report, Collins responded, I thought talent mattered, not color. Despite her training Collins found cold reception in professional ballet. She continued to perform, however. In the 1930s while still a teen she performed as an adagio dancer in vaudeville shows. In 1940 she became the principal dancer for the Los Angeles musical production of “Run Little Chillun” and The Mikado in Swing. By the 1940s she worked with the Katherine Dunham Dance Company and in 1946 appeared in the film, Thrill of Brazil. In 1950 she was the principal dancer in Cole Porter’s production, Out of this World. Collins gave her first prima ballerina performance on November 3, 1948 at the Las Palmas Theater in Los Angeles, which left critics hailing her as a unique performer. Three years later in 1951 Collins was hired by the Metropolitan Opera as its prima ballerina. At the time she was 34. Collins remained at the Met until 1954. She then began teaching ballet which included using dance in the rehabilitation of the handicapped. In 1974 she retired from performing and teaching. The last years of her life were spent painting religious subjects in her studio in Seattle. Janet Collins died on May 28, 2003 in Fort Worth, Texas. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
  • Size Type/Largest Dimension: Medium (Up to 10\
  • Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  • Date of Creation: 1951
  • Color: Black & White
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print
  • Antique: No
  • Type: Photograph

1955 Original Sultan Morocco Photo Sidi Muhammad Arafa French Vintage Paris

1955 Original Sultan Morocco Photo Sidi Muhammad Arafa French Vintage Paris

1955 Original Sultan Morocco Photo Sidi Muhammad Arafa French Vintage Paris

A VINTAGE ORIGINAL PHOTO FROM 1955 MEASURING APPROXIMATELY 5 1/8 X 9 INCHES IN. RABAT MOROCCO SULTAN SIDI MOHAMED BEN MOULAY ARAFA. Mohammed Ben Aarafa, or Ben Arafa, was a paternal first cousin once removed of Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco; he was put in Mohammed V’s place by the French after they exiled Mohammed V to Madagascar in August 1953. His reign as “Mohammed VI” was not recognized in the Spanish-protected part of Morocco. 3, born onMarch 18, 1886in Fez and died onJuly 17, 1976in Nice, is a sultan whom France briefly placed on the throne of the Cherifian Empire after having driven out the sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Youssef (future king Mohammed V) in 1953. He stayed there until the return of Ben Youssef in 1955, who also announced that of independence. This ephemeral sultan is known in Morocco by the simple name of Mohammed ben Arafa, as if he came from an ordinary… Family [of Fez], where the surnames ” Ben “are legion, [while he] is in fact the heir of a line that could not be more cherifian and royal. In addition, recognized historians, such as Charles-André Julien, Michel Abitbol or Bernard Lugan, although he bears the name of the Muslim prophet, have chosen to call him Moulay [Mohammed] ben Arafa(rather than, in a traditional way, Sidi Mohammed ben Arafa, like Joseph Luccioni and Roger Gruner). From the accession to the throne to the fall. Mohammed ben Arafa 3 is, on the side of his father, of a line sheriff and royal Alaouite, from where the fact that he is called Sidi Mohammed ben Arafa and not just Mohammed ben Arafa. He is indeed the son of Moulay Arafa 2, himself the son of Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Abderrahmane 4 (later known as “Mohammed IV”); and therefore the nephew of Sultan Moulay Hassan ben Mohammed 4 (later called “Hassan I er “) and the cousin of the sultans Moulay Abd el-Aziz, Moulay Abd el-Hafid and Moulay Youssef, who are the sons of the latter and succeeded each other on the throne. Born the March 18, 1886in Fez 2, which was then the capital of the Alaouites, he is also, on the side of his mother, Lalla Noufissa 2, linked to the Glaoui, because she is a cousin of the brother of Thami el-Glaoui 5 (who played a role essential in his accession to the throne in 1953): Madani el-Glaoui 2, vizier of the War under Moulay Abdellaziz 5 and Grand Vizir under Moulay Abd el-Hafid 5, whom he had previously helped, like others, to supplant his brother Moulay Abdelaziz in 1908 2. Sidi Mohammed ben Arafa is the husband of Lalla Hania bent Tahar 2 : daughter of the Grand Vizier Mohammed el-Mokri 2 and former wife of the ephemeral sultan Moulay Abd el-Hafid 2, whom she left once he left for foreigner 2 (after having signed the treaty having formalized the French protectorate in the Cherifian Empire and had to abdicate, in 1912), leaving his place to Moulay Youssef, father of the future sultan Sidi Mohammed (whose Ben Arafa took the place during his exile decided by the French, from 1953 to 1955). Lalla Hania was the sister of Lalla Abla bint Tahar. Sidi Mohammed ben Arafa was placed on August 21, 19536, 7 on the throne of the Empire Cherifian – which was deposed his cousin Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Youssef (future King Mohammed V) – by the French authorities which provided a protectorate in the Empire from Fez Treaty of 1912. General Augustin Guillaume, resident general in Morocco since 1951, in open conflict with Ben Youssef who supported independence claims, campaigned with French settlers and certain Moroccan authorities – notably Thami el-Glaoui, pasha de Marrakech – to overturn it. The sultan, enthroned since 1927, was finally arrested and sent illico presto into exile by plane 7, while the ulemas of Fez, despite his refusal to abdicate, recognized Ben Arafa in his place 7. His short reign was marked by the increase in violence and the radicalization of nationalists, who refused to recognize him during the forced removal of Ben Youssef to Corsica and then to Madagascar. He escaped the September 11, 1953to an assassination attempt on the part of Allal ben Abdallah. Its power, limited by the authority of the resident general (General Guillaume then, from 1954, by Francis Lacoste) and the influence of the Pasha of Marrakech, was also affected by the radicalization of the colonists whose ultras founded “French presence “. His lack of legitimacy and popularity with the Moroccan population, the aggravation of violence in connection with those in Tunisia and with the Algerian war, led the French authorities to consider his dismissal and the return of Ben Youssef two years later. Gilbert Grandval, who had just been appointed resident general, decided to meet the Grand Vizier Mohammed el-Mokri. The latter flew to France, where he met Grandval in Vichy, and made him understand that Ben Arafa was ready to leave in the face of popular unrest that was spreading across the country. The question of the throne was asked, and the discussions made it possible to envisage the return of Ben Youssef to power. The1 st of October, Ben Arafa abdicated 1. Ben Youssef’s triumphant return to Morocco, November 16, 1955, after the La Celle-Saint-Cloud agreements, marked both the end of Ben Arafa’s short reign and the return to full sovereignty, formalized in 1956 by the end of the French, but also Spanish, protectorate (in areas of influence surrounding that of France, and this, also since 1912). He became more and more lonely, especially after the death of his wife, and never spoke, as far as we know, of what had led him to collaborate in the dismissal of his grand-cousin Ben Youssef. Held as a traitor, his return to Morocco was prohibited. Mohammed Ben Aarafa Arabic:???? , or Ben Arafa (1889 – 17 July 1976), [citation needed] was a paternal first cousin once removed of Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco; he was put in Mohammed V’s place by the French after they exiled Mohammed V to Madagascar in August 1953. Protests against Ben Aarafa helped lead to Moroccan independence, which was agreed to between France and Mohammed V, after his abdication in October 1955. In Morocco, the subject of this article is known simply as’Mohammed ben Arafa’, as if he came from an ordinary family of Fez, where patronymics in’Ben’ are very common, and is no longer acknowledged as heir to the sharifan and royal line. [2] Others, including notable historians like Charles-André Julien, Michel Abitbol and Bernard Lugan have chosen to refer to him as’Moulay’ (prince)’ben Arafa’, rather than the traditional’Sidi Mohammed ben Arafa’, used by Joseph Luccioni and Roger Gruner. He is never referred to as’Mohammed VI’, which instead refers to the current king of Morocco. Mohammed ben Arafa was born around 1886 in Fez, which was then the Alaouite capital. [2] He was a member of the Sharifan and royal Alaouite line through his father Moulay Arafa, [2] who was himself the son of Mohammed IV. [3] Thus he was the nephew of Hassan I [3] and cousin of the latter’s sons and successors Abd el-Aziz, Abd el-hafid, and Yusef. Through his mother, Lalla Noufissa, he was linked to the Glaoua tribe, since she was a cousin of Madani El Glaoui who had been vizir of war under Abd el-Aziz and Grand Vizir under Abd el-Hafid after helping him overthrow his brother Abd el-Aziz in 1908. [2][4] Madani was in turn the brother of Thami El Glaoui who would play a central role in Ben Arafa’s accession to the throne in 1953. Ben Arafa married Lalla Hania bent Tahar, a granddaughter of Hassan I, who had formerly been married to sultan Abd el-Hafid, but had divorced him after he abdicated and went into exile in 1912. [2] Her sister Lalla Abla bint Tahar was married to Mohammed V. Ben Arafa was placed on the Alouite throne on 21 August 1953 after his cousin Mohammed V was deposed, by the French authorities, which maintained a protectorate in Morocco under the 1912 Treaty of Fez. [5][6] General Augustin Guillaume, who had been resident-general of Morocco since 1951, had clashed with Mohammed V because of the latter’s support for the Moroccan independence movement and led a campaign to overthrow him, which was supported by the French colonists and some Moroccan leaders, such as Thami El Glaoui the Pasha of Marrakesh. Eventually, the sultan was arrested, loaded onto an aeroplane and sent into exile – first in Corsica, and later in Madagascar. Despite Mohammed V’s refusal to abdicate, the Ulama of Fez recognised Ben Arafa as his successor. Ben Arafa is best known for being the subject of a plot by Thami El Glaoui, Pasha of Marrakech to dethrone his cousin Mohammed V. His short reign was marked by increasing violence from the nationalists who refused to recognise him as sultan. Less than a month into his reign, on 11 September 1953, he narrowly survived an assassination attempt by one Allal ben Abdallah. His power was limited by the authority of the resident-general (General Guillaume until 1954 and then Francis Lacoste) and the influence of the Pasha of Marrakesh, but also by the radicalisation of the French colonists who founded the’Présence française’ party. Because of Ben Arafa’s lack of legitimacy or popularity with the Moroccan population, as well as the increasing links of the violence in Morocco with that in Tunisia and with the Algerian War, led the French authorities to consider deposing him and restoring Mohammed V in 1955. Gilbert Grandval, who had been named as the new resident-general, decided to meet with Grand Vizir Muhammad al-Muqri. Al-Muqri flew to France and met with Grandval at Vichy and intimated that Ben Arafa needed to leave, in light of popular agitation throughout the country, and it was envisioned that Mohammed V would be restored to power. On 1 October, Ben Arafa abdicated. Mohammed V’s triumphant return to Morocco on 16 November 1955, after the Accords of La Celle-Saint-Cloud, marked the end of Ben Arafa’s short reign and the restoration of full sovereignty to Morocco, which was completed in 1956 with the end of the French and Spanish protectorates. After his abdication in October 1955, Ben Arafa went to Tangiers, which was then an international city. [1] After it was reintegrated into Morocco, he departed for Nice where he was sumptuously supported by the French authorities. He became more and more withdrawn, especially after the death of his wife and is not known to have ever spoken about what led him to collaborate in the deposition of his cousin. He was forbidden to return to Morocco, as a traitor. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honor of France – 10 December 1953. / (About this soundlisten); Arabic:??????? Place the sun sets; the west’; Standard Moroccan Tamazight:?????? Rib; French: Maroc, officially the Kingdom of Morocco Arabic:??????? The Western Kingdom’; Standard Moroccan Tamazight:??????? Romanized: tageldit n lma? Rib; French: Royaume du Maroc, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, with land borders with Algeria to the east and Western Sahara (status disputed) to the south. Morocco also claims the exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction, as well as several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast. [11] The capital is Rabat and the largest city is Casablanca. [12] Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) and has a population of over 36 million. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under Almoravid and Almohad rule, when it spanned parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. [13] The Portuguese Empire began in Morocco in the 15th century, following Portuguese conquests along the Moroccan coast, founding settlements which lasted into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties resisted foreign domination into the 17th century, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. The country’s strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean attracted the interest of Europe, and in 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier. It regained its independence in 1956, and has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards, with the fifth largest economy in Africa. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a ceasefire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. The sovereign state is a unitary Semi-constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The country wields significant influence in both Africa and the Arab world, and is considered a regional power and a middle power. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco’s predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and Berber, the latter achieving official recognition in 2011, [15] having been the native language of Morocco before the Muslim conquest in the seventh century C. [16] The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. Foundation and early Islamic era. French and Spanish protectorates: 1912 to 1956. Water supply and sanitation. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah??????? Translates to “Kingdom of the West”; although “the West” in Arabic is????? The name also can refer to evening. For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aq? Meaning “The Farthest West” to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsa? Meaning “The Middle West” and al-Maghrib al-Adná?????? Meaning “The Nearest West”. Morocco’s English name is based on Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. [19] The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, [20] but is most likely from the Berber words amur (n) akush???? Or “Land of God”. [21] The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is M?? Akc (in the Berber Latin script). In Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh????? ;[22] this name is still used in some languages such as Persian, Urdu and Punjabi. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish “Marruecos”, from which also derives the Tuscan “Morrocco”, the origin of the Italian “Marocco”. Main article: History of Morocco. Ptolemy of Mauretania was the last Berber to rule the Kingdom of Mauretania prior to Roman conquest. The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. [23] A recent publication may demonstrate an even earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were recently dated to roughly 315,000 years before present. [24] During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today’s arid landscape. [25] Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian “Mechta-Afalou” burials and European Cro-Magnon remains. The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered a close link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia. This supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah, Lixus and Mogador. [27] Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Berber ruins of Volubilis. Morocco later became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancient Carthage as part of its empire. The earliest known independent Moroccan state was the Berber kingdom of Mauretania under king Baga. [29] This ancient kingdom (not to be confused with the present state of Mauritania) dates at least to around 225 BC. Mauretania became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire in 33 BC. Emperor Claudius annexed Mauretania directly as a Roman province in 44 AD, under an imperial governor (either a procurator Augusti, or a legatus Augusti pro praetore). During the crisis of the 3rd century, parts of Mauretania were reconquered by Berber tribes. Direct Roman rule became confined to a few coastal cities, such as Septum (Ceuta) in Mauretania Tingitana and Cherchell in Mauretania Caesariensis, by the late 3rd century. The Roman Empire lost its remaining possessions in Mauretania after the area was devastated by the Vandals in AD 429. After this point, local Mauro-Roman kings assumed control (see Mauro-Roman kingdom). The Eastern Roman Empire under Byzantine control re-established direct imperial rule of Septum and Tingi in the 530s. Tingis was fortified and a church erected. See also: Idrisid dynasty. Idrisid coin in Fes, 840 CE. The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, that started in the middle of the 7th century, was achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate early into the following century. It brought both the Arabic language and Islam to the area. Although part of the larger Islamic Empire, Morocco was initially organized as a subsidiary province of Ifriqiya, with the local governors appointed by the Muslim governor in Kairouan. The indigenous Berber tribes adopted Islam, but retained their customary laws. [31] The first independent Muslim state in the area of modern Morocco was the Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif Mountains. It was founded by Salih I ibn Mansur in 710, as a client state to the Umayyad Caliphate. After the outbreak of the Berber Revolt in 739, the Berbers formed other independent states such as the Miknasa of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata. According to medieval legend, Idris ibn Abdallah had fled to Morocco after the Abbasids’ massacre of his tribe in Iraq. He convinced the Awraba Berber tribes to break their allegiance to the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and he founded the Idrisid dynasty in 788. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and a major regional power. The Idrissids were ousted in 927 by the Fatimid Caliphate and their Miknasa allies. After Miknasa broke off relations with the Fatimids in 932, they were removed from power by the Maghrawa of Sijilmasa in 980. The empire of the Almohad dynasty at its greatest extent, circa 1212. From the 11th century onwards, a series of Berber dynasties arose. [32][33][34] Under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad dynasty, [35] Morocco dominated the Maghreb, much of present-day Spain and Portugal, and the western Mediterranean region. From the 13th century onwards the country saw a massive migration of the Banu Hilal Arab tribes. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Merinids held power in Morocco and strove to replicate the successes of the Almohads by military campaigns in Algeria and Spain. They were followed by the Wattasids. In the 15th century, the Reconquista ended Muslim rule in central and southern Spain and many Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco. Portuguese efforts to control the Atlantic sea trade in the 15th century did not greatly affect the interior of Morocco even though they managed to control some possessions on the Moroccan coast but not venturing further afield inland. The Portuguese Empire was founded when Prince Henry the Navigator led the Conquest of Ceuta, which began the Portuguese presence in Morocco, lasting from 1415 to 1769. The Portuguese city of Mazagão (modern El Jadida) is one of the Seven Wonders of Portuguese Origin in the World and UNESCO World Heritage. In 1549, the region fell to successive Arab dynasties claiming descent from the Islamic prophet, Muhammad: first the Saadi dynasty who ruled from 1549 to 1659, and then the Alaouite dynasty, who remain in power since the 17th century. Under the Saadi dynasty, the country repulsed Ottoman incursions and a Portuguese invasion at the battle of Ksar el Kebir in 1578. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and a large expedition to West Africa inflicted a crushing defeat on the Songhay Empire in 1591. However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur, the country was divided among his sons. In 1631, Morocco was reunited by the Alaouite dynasty, who have been the ruling house of Morocco ever since. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire allies pressing westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilising their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. [37] With his Jaysh d’Ahl al-Rif (the Riffian Army) he seized Tangier from the English in 1684 and drove the Spanish from Larache in 1689. Portuguese abandoned Mazagão, their last territory in Morocco, in 1769. However, the Siege of Melilla against the Spanish ended in defeat in 1775. Morocco was the first nation to recognise the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship, signed in 1786, stands as the U. S oldest non-broken friendship treaty. Main articles: French protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Protectorate in Morocco. Death of Spanish general Margallo during the Melilla War. As Europe industrialised, Northwest Africa was increasingly prized for its potential for colonisation. France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830, not only to protect the border of its Algerian territory, but also because of the strategic position of Morocco with coasts on the Mediterranean and the open Atlantic. [43] In 1860, a dispute over Spain’s Ceuta enclave led Spain to declare war. Victorious Spain won a further enclave and an enlarged Ceuta in the settlement. In 1884, Spain created a protectorate in the coastal areas of Morocco. Tangier’s population in 1873 included 40,000 Muslims, 31,000 Europeans and 15,000 Jews. In 1904, France and Spain carved out zones of influence in Morocco. Recognition by the United Kingdom of France’s sphere of influence provoked a strong reaction from the German Empire; and a crisis loomed in 1905. The matter was resolved at the Algeciras Conference in 1906. The Agadir Crisis of 1911 increased tensions between European powers. The 1912 Treaty of Fez made Morocco a protectorate of France, and triggered the 1912 Fez riots. [45] Spain continued to operate its coastal protectorate. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones. Tens of thousands of colonists entered Morocco. Some bought up large amounts of the rich agricultural land, others organised the exploitation and modernisation of mines and harbours. Interest groups that formed among these elements continually pressured France to increase its control over Morocco – a control which was also made necessary by the continuous wars among Moroccan tribes, part of which had taken sides with the French since the beginning of the conquest. Governor general Marshall Hubert Lyautey sincerely admired Moroccan culture and succeeded in imposing a joint Moroccan-French administration, while creating a modern school system. Several divisions of Moroccan soldiers (Goumiers or regular troops and officers) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares). [47] The institution of slavery was abolished in 1925. Between 1921 and 1926, a Berber uprising in the Rif Mountains, led by Abd el-Krim, led to the establishment of the Republic of the Rif. The Spanish lost more than 13,000 soldiers at Annual in July-August 1921. [49] The rebellion was eventually suppressed by French and Spanish troops. In 1943, the Istiqlal Party (Independence Party) was founded to press for independence, with discreet US support. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement. France’s exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa sparked active opposition to the French and Spanish protectorates. The most notable violence occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year. [50] In March 1956 the French protectorate was ended and Morocco regained its independence from France as the “Kingdom of Morocco”. A month later Spain forsook its protectorate in Northern Morocco to the new state but kept its two coastal enclaves (Ceuta and Melilla) on the Mediterranean coast which dated from earlier conquests. Sultan Mohammed became king in 1957. The Proclamation of Independence of Morocco of 1944. The Mausoleum of Mohammed V, a modern Alaouite landmark in Rabat. Upon the death of Mohammed V, Hassan II became King of Morocco on 3 March 1961. Morocco held its first general elections in 1963. However, Hassan declared a state of emergency and suspended parliament in 1965. In 1971, there was a failed attempt to depose the king and establish a republic. A truth commission set up in 2005 to investigate human rights abuses during his reign confirmed nearly 10,000 cases, ranging from death in detention to forced exile. Some 592 people were recorded killed during Hassan’s rule according to the truth commission. The Polisario movement was formed in 1973, with the aim of establishing an independent state in the Spanish Sahara. On 6 November 1975, King Hassan asked for volunteers to cross into the Spanish Sahara. Some 350,000 civilians were reported as being involved in the “Green March”. [51] A month later, Spain agreed to leave the Spanish Sahara, soon to become Western Sahara, and to transfer it to joint Moroccan-Mauritanian control, despite the objections and threats of military intervention by Algeria. Moroccan forces occupied the territory. Moroccan and Algerian troops soon clashed in Western Sahara. Morocco and Mauritania divided up Western Sahara. Fighting between the Moroccan military and Polisario forces continued for many years. The prolonged war was a considerable financial drain on Morocco. In 1983, Hassan cancelled planned elections amid political unrest and economic crisis. In 1984, Morocco left the Organisation of African Unity in protest at the SADR’s admission to the body. Polisario claimed to have killed more than 5,000 Moroccan soldiers between 1982 and 1985. Algerian authorities have estimated the number of Sahrawi refugees in Algeria to be 165,000. [52] Diplomatic relations with Algeria were restored in 1988. In 1991, a UN-monitored ceasefire began in Western Sahara, but the territory’s status remains undecided and ceasefire violations are reported. The following decade saw much wrangling over a proposed referendum on the future of the territory but the deadlock was not broken. Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997 and Morocco’s first opposition-led government came to power in 1998. Protestors in Casablanca demand that authorities honor their promises of political reform. King Hassan II died in 1999 and was succeeded by his son, Mohammed VI. He is a cautious moderniser who has introduced some economic and social liberalisation. Mohammed VI paid a controversial visit to the Western Sahara in 2002. Morocco unveiled an autonomy blueprint for Western Sahara to the United Nations in 2007. The Polisario rejected the plan and put forward its own proposal. Morocco and the Polisario Front held UN-sponsored talks in New York City but failed to come to any agreement. In 2010, security forces stormed a protest camp in the Western Sahara, triggering violent demonstrations in the regional capital El Aaiún. In 2002, Morocco and Spain agreed to a US-brokered resolution over the disputed island of Perejil. Spanish troops had taken the normally uninhabited island after Moroccan soldiers landed on it and set up tents and a flag. There were renewed tensions in 2005, as hundreds of African migrants tried to storm the borders of the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. Morocco deported hundreds of the illegal migrants. In 2006, the Spanish Premier Zapatero visited Spanish enclaves. He was the first Spanish leader in 25 years to make an official visit to the territories. The following year, Spanish King Juan Carlos I visited Ceuta and Melilla, further angering Morocco which demanded control of the enclaves. In July 2011, the King won a landslide victory in a referendum on a reformed constitution he had proposed to placate the Arab Spring protests. Despite the reforms made by Mohammed VI, demonstrators continued to call for deeper reforms. Hundreds took part in a trade union rally in Casablanca in May 2012. Participants accused the government of failing to deliver on reforms. Main article: Geography of Morocco. Toubkal, the highest peak in Northwest Africa, at 4,167 m (13,671 ft). A section of the Anti-Atlas near Tafraout. An old Cedrus atlantica tree in the Atlas range. Morocco has a coast by the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish-controlled exclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algeria to the east, and Western Sahara to the south. Since Morocco controls most of Western Sahara, its de facto southern boundary is with Mauritania. The internationally recognised borders of the country lie between latitudes 27° and 36°N, and longitudes 1° and 14°W. Adding Western Sahara, Morocco lies mostly between 21° and 36°N, and 1° and 17°W (the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula is slightly south of 21° and west of 17°). The geography of Morocco spans from the Atlantic Ocean, to mountainous areas, to the Sahara desert. Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara. It is one of only three nations (along with Spain and France) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. A large part of Morocco is mountainous. The Atlas Mountains are located mainly in the centre and the south of the country. The Rif Mountains are located in the north of the country. Both ranges are mainly inhabited by the Berber people. At 446,550 km2 (172,414 sq mi), Morocco excluding Western Sahara is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world. Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast, though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994. Spanish territory in Northwest Africa neighbouring Morocco comprises five enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, the Chafarinas islands, and the disputed islet Perejil. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. The Rif mountains stretch over the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, [54] from the northeast to the southwest. Most of the southeast portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March). [55] Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces. Morocco’s capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Other cities recording a population over 500,000 in the 2014 Moroccan census are Fes, Marrakesh, Meknes, Salé and Tangier. Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA. [57] This code was used as the basis for Morocco’s internet domain. Köppen climate types in Morocco. The country’s Mediterranean climate is similar to that of southern California, with lush forests in the northern and central mountain ranges of the country, giving way to drier conditions and inland deserts further southeast. The Moroccan coastal plains experience remarkably moderate temperatures even in summer, owing to the effect of the cold Canary Current off its Atlantic coast. In the Rif, Middle and High Atlas Mountains, there exist several different types of climates: Mediterranean along the coastal lowlands, giving way to a humid temperate climate at higher elevations with sufficient moisture to allow for the growth of different species of oaks, moss carpets, junipers, and Atlantic fir which is a royal conifer tree endemic to Morocco. In the valleys, fertile soils and high precipitation allow for the growth of thick and lush forests. Cloud forests can be found in the west of the Rif Mountains and Middle Atlas Mountains. At higher elevations, the climate becomes alpine in character, and can sustain ski resorts. Southeast of the Atlas mountains, near the Algerian borders, the climate becomes very dry, with long and hot summers. Extreme heat and low moisture levels are especially pronounced in the lowland regions east of the Atlas range due to the rain shadow effect of the mountain system. The southeastern-most portions of Morocco are very hot, and include portions of the Sahara Desert, where vast swathes of sand dunes and rocky plains are dotted with lush oases. In contrast to the Sahara region in the south, coastal plains are fertile in the central and northern regions of the country, and comprise the backbone of the country’s agriculture, in which 95% of the population live. The direct exposure to the North Atlantic Ocean, the proximity to mainland Europe and the long stretched Rif and Atlas mountains are the factors of the rather European-like climate in the northern half of the country. That makes Morocco a country of contrasts. Forested areas cover about 12% of the country while arable land accounts for 18%. Approximately 5% of Moroccan land is irrigated for agricultural use. Landscape of the Erg Chebbi. In general, apart from the southeast regions (pre-Saharan and desert areas), Morocco’s climate and geography are very similar to the Iberian peninsula. Thus Morocco has the following climate zones. Mediterranean: Dominates the coastal Mediterranean regions of the country, along the (500 km strip), and some parts of the Atlantic coast. Summers are hot to moderately hot and dry, average highs are between 29 °C (84.2 °F) and 32 °C (89.6 °F). Winters are generally mild and wet, daily average temperatures hover around 9 °C (48.2 °F) to 11 °C (51.8 °F), and average low are around 5 °C (41.0 °F) to 8 °C (46.4 °F), typical to the coastal areas of the west Mediterranean. Annual Precipitation in this area vary from 600-800 mm in the west to 350-500 mm in the east. Notable cities that fall into this zone are Tangier, Tetouan, Al Hoceima, Nador and Safi. Sub-Mediterranean: It influences cities that show Mediterranean characteristics, but remain fairly influenced by other climates owing to their either relative elevation, or direct exposure to the North Atlantic Ocean. We thus have two main influencing climates. Oceanic: Determined by the cooler summers, where highs are around 27 °C (80.6 °F) and in terms of the Essaouira region, are almost always around 21 °C (69.8 °F). The medium daily temperatures can get as low as 19 °C (66.2 °F), while winters are chilly to mild and wet. Annual precipitation varies from 400 to 700 mm. Notable cities that fall into this zone are Rabat, Casablanca, Kénitra, Salé and Essaouira. Continental: Determined by the bigger gap between highs and lows, that results in hotter summers and colder winters, than found in typical Mediterranean zones. In summer, daily highs can get as high as 40 °C (104.0 °F) during heat waves, but usually are between 32 °C (89.6 °F) and 36 °C (96.8 °F). However, temperatures drop as the sun sets. Night temperatures usually fall below 20 °C (68.0 °F), and sometimes as low as 10 °C (50.0 °F) in mid-summer. Winters are cooler, and can get below the freezing point multiple times between December and February. Also, snow can fall occasionally. Fès for example registered? 8 °C (17.6 °F) in winter 2005. Annual precipitation varies between 500 and 900 mm. Notable cities are Fès, Meknès, Chefchaouen, Beni-Mellal and Taza. Continental: Dominates the mountainous regions of the north and central parts of the country, where summers are hot to very hot, with highs between 32 °C (89.6 °F) and 36 °C (96.8 °F). Winters on the other hand are cold, and lows usually go beyond the freezing point. And when cold damp air comes to Morocco from the northwest, for a few days, temperatures sometimes get below? 5 °C (23.0 °F). It often snows abundantly in this part of the country. Precipitation varies between 400 and 800 mm. Notable cities are Khenifra, Imilchil, Midelt and Azilal. Alpine: Found in some parts of the Middle Atlas Mountain range and the eastern part of the High Atlas Mountain range. Summers are very warm to moderately hot, and winters are longer, cold and snowy. Precipitation varies between 400 and 1200 mm. In summer highs barely go above 30 °C (86.0 °F), and lows are cool and average below 15 °C (59.0 °F). In winters, highs average around 8 °C (46.4 °F), and lows go well below the freezing point. In this part of country, there are many ski resorts, such as Oukaimeden and Mischliefen. Notable cities are Ifrane, Azrou and Boulmane. Semi-arid: This type of climate is found in the south of the country and some parts of the east of the country, where rainfall is lower and annual precipitations are between 200 and 350 mm. However, one usually finds Mediterranean characteristics in those regions, such as the precipitation pattern and thermal attributes. Notable cities are Agadir, Marrakesh and Oujda. South of Agadir and east of Jerada near the Algerian borders, arid and desert climate starts to prevail. Due to Morocco’s proximity to the Sahara desert and the North Sea of the Atlantic Ocean, two phenomena occur to influence the regional seasonal temperatures, either by raising temperatures by 7-8 degrees Celsius when sirocco blows from the east creating heatwaves, or by lowering temperatures by 7-8 degrees Celsius when cold damp air blows from the northwest, creating a coldwave or cold spell. However, these phenomena do not last for more than two to five days on average. Countries or regions that share the same climatic characteristics with Morocco are the state of California (USA), Portugal, Spain and Algeria. Annual rainfall in Morocco is different according to regions. The northwestern parts of the country receive between 500 mm and 1200 mm, while the northeastern parts receive between 350 and 600 mm. North Central Morocco receives between 700 mm and up to 3500 mm. The area from Casablanca to Essaouira, on the Atlantic coast, receives between 300 mm and 500 mm. The regions from Essaouira to Agadir receive between 250 mm and 400 mm. Marrakesh region in the central south receives only 250 mm a year. The southeastern regions, basically the driest areas, receive between 100 mm and 200 mm only, and consist basically of arid and desert lands. Botanically speaking, Morocco enjoys a great variety of vegetation, from lush large forests of conifer and oak trees typical of the western Mediterranean countries (Morocco, Algeria, Italy, Spain, France and Portugal), to shrubs and acacias further south. This is due to the diversity of climate and the precipitation patterns in the country. Morocco’s weather is one of the most pristine in terms of the four-season experience. Most regions have distinct seasons where summer is usually not spoiled by rain and winter turns wet, snowy and humid with mild, cool to cold temperatures, while spring and fall see warm to mild weather characterised by flowers blooming in spring and falling leaves in autumn. This type of weather has affected the Moroccan culture and behaviour and played a part in the social interaction of the population, like many other countries that fall into this type of climate zone. This section is an excerpt from Climate change in Morocco[edit]. Like other countries in the MENA region, climate change is expected to significantly impact Morocco on multiple dimensions. As a coastal country with hot and arid climates, environmental impacts are likely to be wide and varied. Moreover, analysis of these environmental changes on the economy of Morocco are expected to create challenges at all levels of the economy, especially in the agricultural systems and fisheries which employ half of the population, and account for 14% of GDP. [58] Moreover, because 60% of the population and most of the industrial activity are on the coast, sea level rise is a major threat to key economic forces. [58] As of the 2019 Climate Change Performance Index, Morrocco was ranked second in preparedness behind Sweden. An adult male Barbary macaque carrying his offspring, a behaviour rarely found in other primates. Morocco has a wide range of biodiversity. It is part of the Mediterranean basin, an area with exceptional concentrations of endemic species undergoing rapid rates of habitat loss, and is therefore considered to be a hotspot for conservation priority. [60] Avifauna are notably variant. [61] The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species, five of which have been introduced by humans, and 156 are rarely or accidentally seen. The Barbary lion, hunted to extinction in the wild, was a subspecies native to Morocco and is a national emblem. [2] The last Barbary lion in the wild was shot in the Atlas Mountains in 1922. [63] The other two primary predators of northern Africa, the Atlas bear and Barbary leopard, are now extinct and critically endangered, respectively. Relict populations of the West African crocodile persisted in the Draa river until the 20th century. The Barbary macaque, a primate endemic to Morocco and Algeria, is also facing extinction due to offtake for trade[65] human interruption, urbanisation, wood and real estate expansion that diminish forested area – the macaque’s habitat. Trade of animals and plants for food, pets, medicinal purposes, souvenirs and photo props is common across Morocco, despite laws making much of it illegal. [66][67] This trade is unregulated and causing unknown reductions of wild populations of native Moroccan wildlife. Because of the proximity of northern Morocco to Europe, species such as cacti, tortoises, mammal skins, and high-value birds (falcons and bustards) are harvested in various parts of the country and exported in appreciable quantities, with especially large volumes of eel harvested – 60 tons exported to the Far East in the period 2009? Main article: Politics of Morocco. The King of Morocco, Mohammed VI. Morocco was an authoritarian regime according to the Democracy Index of 2014. This has improved since, however, and in 2017, Morocco was upgraded to being a “hybrid regime” according to the Democracy Index in 2017 and the Freedom of the Press report in 2017 found that Morocco was “partly free”. Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi’s government was the first ever government drawn primarily from opposition parties, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialists, left-of-centre, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Saadeddine Othmani. The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary. With the 2011 constitutional reforms, the King of Morocco retains less executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged. The constitution grants the king honorific powers (among other powers); he is both the secular political leader and the “Commander of the Faithful” as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the Prime Minister from the political party that has won the most seats in the parliamentary elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. The constitution of 1996 theoretically allowed the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree. The only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The legislature’s building in Rabat. Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis an-Nuwwâb/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five-year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine-year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament’s powers, though still relatively limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 and even further in the 2011 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government’s actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence. The latest parliamentary elections were held on November 25, 2011. Voter turnout in these elections was estimated to be 43% of registered voters. Mohammed VI, a FREMM multipurpose frigate of the Royal Moroccan Navy. US Marines and Moroccan soldiers during exercise African Lion in Tan tan. Main article: Royal Moroccan Armed Forces. Compulsory military service in Morocco has been officially suspended since September 2006, and Morocco’s reserve obligation lasts until age 50. Morocco’s military consists of the Royal Armed Forces-this includes the Army (the largest branch), the Navy, the Air Force, the Royal Guard, the Royal Gendarmerie and the Auxiliary Forces. Internal security is generally effective, and acts of political violence are rare (with one exception, the 2003 Casablanca bombings which killed 45 people[72]). The UN maintains a small observer force in Western Sahara, where a large number of Morocco’s troops are stationed. The Saharawi group Polisario maintains an active militia of an estimated 5,000 fighters in Western Sahara and has engaged in intermittent warfare with Moroccan forces since the 1970s. Main article: Foreign relations of Morocco. Morocco is a member of the United Nations and belongs to the African Union (AU), Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union (UMA), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the Non-Aligned Movement and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN_SAD). Morocco’s relationships vary greatly between African, Arab, and Western states. Morocco has had strong ties to the West in order to gain economic and political benefits. [73] France and Spain remain the primary trade partners, as well as the primary creditors and foreign investors in Morocco. From the total foreign investments in Morocco, the European Union invests approximately 73.5%, whereas, the Arab world invests only 19.3%. Many countries from the Persian Gulf and Maghreb regions are getting more involved in large-scale development projects in Morocco. Morocco claims sovereignty over Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. Morocco was the only African state not to be a member of the African Union due to its unilateral withdrawal on 12 November 1984 over the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in 1982 by the African Union (then called Organisation of African Unity) as a full member without the organisation of a referendum of self-determination in the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Morocco rejoined the AU on 30 January 2017. A dispute with Spain in 2002 over the small island of Perejil revived the issue of the sovereignty of Melilla and Ceuta. These small enclaves on the Mediterranean coast are surrounded by Morocco and have been administered by Spain for centuries. Morocco has been given the status of major non-NATO ally by the US government. Morocco was the first country in the world to recognise US sovereignty (in 1777). Morocco is included in the European Union’s European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Main article: Legal status of Western Sahara. Morocco annexed Western Sahara in 1975. The Polisario Front control the territory east of the Moroccan berm (wall). Due to the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of the Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro regions is disputed. The Western Sahara War saw the Polisario Front, the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement, battling both Morocco and Mauritania between 1976 and a ceasefire in 1991 that is still in effect. A United Nations mission, MINURSO, is tasked with organizing a referendum on whether the territory should become independent or recognised as a part of Morocco. Part of the territory, the Free Zone, is a mostly uninhabited area that the Polisario Front controls as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Its administrative headquarters are located in Tindouf, Algeria. As of 2006, no UN member state has recognised Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. In 2006, the government of Morocco has suggested autonomous status for the region, through the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS). The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the United States, France and Spain. [78] The Security Council has called upon the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution. Main article: Administrative divisions of Morocco. The 12 official administrative Regions of Morocco, with their native names in Berber. Morocco is officially divided into 12 regions, [80] which, in turn, are subdivided into 62 provinces and 13 prefectures. See also: Human rights in Morocco and LGBT rights in Morocco. During the early 1960s to the late 1980s, under the leadership of Hassan II, Morocco had one of the worst human rights record in both Africa and the world. Government repression of political dissent was widespread during Hassan II’s leadership, until it dropped sharply in the mid-1990s. The decades previous to this time are called the Years of Lead (Les Années de Plomb), and included forced disappearances, assassinations of government opponents and protesters, and secret internment camps such as Tazmamart. According to Human Rights Watch annual report 2016, Moroccan authorities restricted the rights to peaceful expression, association and assembly through several laws. The authorities continue to prosecute both printed and online media which criticizes the government or the king. [84] There are also persistent allegations of violence against both Sahrawi pro-independence and pro-Polisario demonstrators[85] in Western Sahara; a disputed territory which is occupied by and considered by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. Morocco has been accused of detaining Sahrawi pro-independence activists as prisoners of conscience. Homosexual acts are illegal in Morocco, and can be punishable by six months to three years of imprisonment. [87][88] It is illegal to proselytise for any religion other than Islam (article 220 of the Moroccan Penal Code), and that crime is punishable by a maximum of 15 years of imprisonment. [89][90] Violence against women, forced marriage and sexual harassment has been criminalized. As of May 24, 2020, hundreds of Moroccan migrant workers are trapped in Spain. They are continuously begging their government to let them come back home. The Spanish government states that it is holding discussions with the Moroccan government about repatriating the migrant workers via a “humanitarian corridor, ” but it’s unclear how long will the process take. Main article: Economy of Morocco. Boulevard des FAR (Forces Armées Royales). Morocco’s economy is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993, the country has followed a policy of privatisation of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of the government. [93] Morocco has become a major player in African economic affairs, [94] and is the 5th African economy by GDP (PPP). Morocco was ranked as the first African country by the Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality-of-life index, ahead of South Africa. [citation needed] However, in the years since that first-place ranking was given, Morocco has slipped into fourth place behind Egypt. Map of Morocco’s exports as of 2017. For 2012 the World Bank forecast a rate of 4% growth for Morocco and 4.2% for following year, 2013. The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry, made up of mining, construction and manufacturing, is an additional quarter. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile. Main article: Tourism in Morocco. The Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakech. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Moroccan economy. It is well developed with a strong tourist industry focused on the country’s coast, culture, and history. Morocco attracted more than 11 million tourists in 2017. The Moroccan government is heavily investing in tourism development, in 2010 the government launched its Vision 2020 which plans to make Morocco one of the top 20 tourist destinations in the world and to double the annual number of international arrivals to 20 million by 2020, [96] with the hope that tourism will then have risen to 20% of GDP. Large government sponsored marketing campaigns to attract tourists advertised Morocco as a cheap and exotic, yet safe, place for tourists. Most of the visitors to Morocco continue to be European, with French nationals making up almost 20% of all visitors. Most Europeans visit between April and August. [97] Morocco’s relatively high number of tourists has been aided by its location-Morocco is close to Europe and attracts visitors to its beaches. Because of its proximity to Spain, tourists in southern Spain’s coastal areas take one- to three-day trips to Morocco. Since air services between Morocco and Algeria have been established, many Algerians have gone to Morocco to shop and visit family and friends. Morocco is relatively inexpensive because of the devaluation of the dirham and the increase of hotel prices in Spain. Morocco has an excellent road and rail infrastructure that links the major cities and tourist destinations with ports and cities with international airports. Low-cost airlines offer cheap flights to the country. View of the medina (old city) of Fez. Tourism is increasingly focused on Morocco’s culture, such as its ancient cities. The modern tourist industry capitalises on Morocco’s ancient Roman and Islamic sites, and on its landscape and cultural history. 60% of Morocco’s tourists visit for its culture and heritage. Agadir is a major coastal resort and has a third of all Moroccan bed nights. It is a base for tours to the Atlas Mountains. Other resorts in north Morocco are also very popular. Casablanca is the major cruise port in Morocco, and has the best developed market for tourists in Morocco, Marrakech in central Morocco is a popular tourist destination, but is more popular among tourists for one- and two-day excursions that provide a taste of Morocco’s history and culture. The Majorelle botanical garden in Marrakech is a popular tourist attraction. It was bought by the fashion designer Yves Saint-Laurent and Pierre Bergé in 1980. Their presence in the city helped to boost the city’s profile as a tourist destination. As of 2006, activity and adventure tourism in the Atlas and Rif Mountains are the fastest growth area in Moroccan tourism. These locations have excellent walking and trekking opportunities from late March to mid-November. The government is investing in trekking circuits. They are also developing desert tourism in competition with Tunisia. Main article: Agriculture in Morocco. Barley field in an oasis (Southern Morocco, 2006). Crate of clementine (mandarin) oranges from Morocco. This section is an excerpt from Agriculture in Morocco[edit]. High Atlas, Boumalne du Dades. Agriculture in Morocco employs about 40% of the nation’s workforce. Thus, it is the largest employer in the country. In the rainy sections of the northwest, barley, wheat, and other cereals can be raised without irrigation. On the Atlantic coast, where there are extensive plains, olives, citrus fruits, and wine grapes are grown, largely with water supplied by artesian wells. Livestock are raised and forests yield cork, cabinet wood, and building materials. Part of the maritime population fishes for its livelihood. Agadir, Essaouira, El Jadida, and Larache are among the important fishing harbors. [101] Both the agriculture and fishing industries are expected to be severely impacted by climate change. Moroccan agricultural production also consists of orange, tomatoes, potatoes, olives, and olive oil. High quality agricultural products are usually exported to Europe. Morocco produces enough food for domestic consumption except for grains, sugar, coffee and tea. More than 40% of Morocco’s consumption of grains and flour is imported from the United States and France. Mohammed VI bridge, longest suspended bridge in Africa. Newly built road part of the development program for the southern provinces. Al Boraq RGV2N2 high-speed trainset at Tanger Ville railway station in November 2018. According to the Global Competitiveness Report of 2019, Morocco Ranked 32nd in the world in terms of Roads, 16th in Sea, 45th in Air and 64th in Railways. This gives Morocco the best infrastructure rankings in the African continent. Modern infrastructure development, such as ports, airports, and rail links, is a top government priority. Morocco has one of the best road systems on the continent. Over the past 20 years, the government has built approximately 1770 kilometers of modern roads, connecting most major cities via toll expressways. While focusing on linking the southern provinces, notably the cities of Laayoune and Dakhla to the rest of Morocco. In 2014, Morocco began the construction of the first high-speed railway system in Africa linking the cities of Tangiers and Casablanca. It was inaugurated in 2018 by the King following over a decade of planning and construction by Moroccan national railway company ONCF. It is the first phase of what is planned to eventually be a 1,500 kilometeres (930 mi) high-speed rail network in Morocco. An extension of the line to Marrakesh is already being planned. It is situated in the Tangiers free economic zone and serves as a logistics hub for Africa and the world. Main article: Energy in Morocco. Solar cell panels in eastern Morocco. In 2008, about 56% of Morocco’s electricity supply was provided by coal. [107] However, as forecasts indicate that energy requirements in Morocco will rise 6% per year between 2012 and 2050, [108] a new law passed encouraging Moroccans to look for ways to diversify the energy supply, including more renewable resources. The Moroccan government has launched a project to build a solar thermal energy power plant[109] and is also looking into the use of natural gas as a potential source of revenue for Morocco’s government. Morocco has embarked upon the construction of large solar energy farms to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, and to eventually export electricity to Europe. Cannabis Fields in Ketama Tidighine mountain, Morocco. Since the 7th century, Cannabis has been cultivated in the Rif Region. [111] In 2004, according to the UN World Drugs Report, cultivation and transformation of Cannabis represents 0.57% of the national GDP of Morocco in 2002. [112] According to a French Ministry of the Interior 2006 report, 80% of the cannabis resin (hashish) consumed in Europe comes from the Rif region in Morocco, which is mostly mountainous terrain in the north of Morocco, also hosting plains that are very fertile and expanding from Melwiyya River and Ras Kebdana in the East to Tangier and Cape Spartel in the West. Also, the region extends from the Mediterranean in the south, home of the Wergha River, to the north. [113] In addition to that, Morocco is a transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Morocco. Water supply and sanitation in Morocco is provided by a wide array of utilities. They range from private companies in the largest city, Casablanca, the capital, Rabat, and two other cities, [clarification needed] to public municipal utilities in 13 other cities, as well as a national electricity and water company (ONEE). The latter is in charge of bulk water supply to the aforementioned utilities, water distribution in about 500 small towns, as well as sewerage and wastewater treatment in 60 of these towns. There have been substantial improvements in access to water supply, and to a lesser extent to sanitation, over the past fifteen years. Remaining challenges include a low level of wastewater treatment (only 13% of collected wastewater is being treated), lack of house connections in the poorest urban neighbourhoods, and limited sustainability of rural systems (20 percent of rural systems are estimated not to function). In 2005 a National Sanitation Program was approved that aims at treating 60% of collected wastewater and connecting 80% of urban households to sewers by 2020. Main article: Science and technology in Morocco. The Moroccan government has been implementing reforms to improve the quality of education and make research more responsive to socio-economic needs. In May 2009, Morocco’s prime minister, Abbas El Fassi, announced greater support for science during a meeting at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research. The aim was to give universities greater financial autonomy from the government to make them more responsive to research needs and better able to forge links with the private sector, in the hope that this would nurture a culture of entrepreneurship in academia. The Moroccan Innovation Strategy was launched at the country’s first National Innovation Summit in June 2009 by the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Investment and the Digital Economy. The Moroccan Innovation Strategy fixed the target of producing 1,000 Moroccan patents and creating 200 innovative start-ups by 2014. In 2012, Moroccan inventors applied for 197 patents, up from 152 two years earlier. In 2011, the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and New Technologies created a Moroccan Club of Innovation, in partnership with the Moroccan Office of Industrial and Commercial Property. The idea is to create a network of players in innovation, including researchers, entrepreneurs, students and academics, to help them develop innovative projects. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is supporting research in advanced technologies and the development of innovative cities in Fez, Rabat and Marrakesh. The government is encouraging public institutions to engage with citizens in innovation. As of 2015, Morocco had three technoparks. Since the first technopark was established in Rabat in 2005, a second has been set up in Casablanca, followed, in 2015, by a third in Tangers. The technoparks host start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises specializing in information and communication technologies (ICTs),’green’ technologies (namely, environmentally friendly technologies) and cultural industries. In 2012, the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology identified a number of sectors where Morocco has a comparative advantage and skilled human capital, including mining, fisheries, food chemistry and new technologies. It also identified a number of strategic sectors, such as energy, with an emphasis on renewable energies such as photovoltaic, thermal solar energy, wind and biomass; as well as the water, nutrition and health sectors, the environment and geosciences. The report advocated making education egalitarian and, thus, accessible to the greatest number. Since improving the quality of education goes hand in hand with promoting research and development, the report also recommended developing an integrated national innovation system which would be financed by gradually increasing the share of GDP devoted to research and development (R&D) from 0.73% of GDP in 2010′to 1% in the short term, 1.5% by 2025 and 2% by 2030′. Main articles: Demographics of Morocco and Moroccans. Morocco has a population of around 36,029,093 inhabitants 2018 est. [120][121] According to the CIA, 99% of residents are Arab-Berber. It is estimated that between 41%[122] to 80% of residents have Berber ancestral origins. [123] A sizeable portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa (or Gnaoua), West African or mixed race descendants of slaves, and Moriscos, European Muslims expelled from Spain and Portugal in the 17th century. According to the 2014 Morocco population census, there were around 84,000 immigrants in the country. Of these foreign-born residents, most were of French origin, followed by individuals mainly from various nations in West Africa and Algeria. [125] There are also a number of foreign residents of Spanish origin. Some of them are descendants of colonial settlers, who primarily work for European multinational companies, while others are married to Moroccans or are retirees. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million Europeans; who were mostly Christians. [126] Also prior to independence, Morocco was home to 250,000 Spaniards. [127] Morocco’s once prominent Jewish minority has decreased significantly since its peak of 265,000 in 1948, declining to around 2,500 today. Morocco has a large diaspora, most of which is located in France, which has reportedly over one million Moroccans of up to the third generation. There are also large Moroccan communities in Spain (about 700,000 Moroccans), [129] the Netherlands (360,000), and Belgium (300,000). [130] Other large communities can be found in Italy, Canada, the United States, and Israel, where Moroccan Jews are thought to constitute the second biggest Jewish ethnic subgroup. Main article: Religion in Morocco. Religions in Morocco[131]. The religious affiliation in the country was estimated by the Pew Forum in 2010 as 99% Muslim, with all remaining groups accounting for less than 1% of the population. [132] Sunnis form the majority at 67% with non-denominational Muslims being the second largest group of Muslims at 30%. [133] There are an estimated 3,000 to 8,000 Shia Muslims, most of them foreign residents from Lebanon or Iraq, but also a few citizen converts. Followers of several Sufi Muslim orders across the Maghreb and West Africa undertake joint annual pilgrimages to the country. The interior of a mosque in Fes. Christians are estimated at 1% (380,000) of the Moroccan population. [2] The predominantly Roman Catholic and Protestant foreign-resident Christian community consists of approximately 40,000 practising members. Most foreign resident Christians reside in the Casablanca, Tangier, and Rabat urban areas. Various local Christian leaders estimate that between 2005 and 2010 there are 5,000 citizen converted Christians (mostly ethnically Berber) who regularly attend “house” churches and live predominantly in the south. [134] Some local Christian leaders estimate that there may be as many as 8,000 Christian citizens throughout the country, but many reportedly do not meet regularly due to fear of government surveillance and social persecution. [135] The number of the Moroccans who converted to Christianity (most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 8,000-50,000. [136][137][138][139]. The most recent estimates put the size of the Casablanca Jewish community at about 2,500, [140] and the Rabat and Marrakesh Jewish communities at about 100 members each. The remainder of the Jewish population is dispersed throughout the country. This population is mostly elderly, with a decreasing number of young people. [135] The Baha’i community, located in urban areas, numbers 350 to 400 persons. Main article: Languages of Morocco. Linguistic map of Morocco. Morocco’s official languages are Arabic and Berber. [141][142] The country’s distinctive group of Moroccan Arabic dialects is referred to as Darija. Approximately 89.8% of the whole population can communicate to some degree in Moroccan Arabic. [143] The Berber language is spoken in three dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhit and Central Atlas Tamazight). [144] In 2008, Frédéric Deroche estimated that there were 12 million Berber speakers, making up about 40% of the population. [145] The 2004 population census reported that 28.1% of the population spoke Berber. French is widely used in governmental institutions, media, mid-size and large companies, international commerce with French-speaking countries, and often in international diplomacy. French is taught as an obligatory language in all schools. In 2010, there were 10,366,000 French-speakers in Morocco, or about 32% of the population. According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French. [143] English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals. According to Ethnologue, as of 2016, there are 1,536,590 individuals (or approximately 4.5% of the population) in Morocco who speak Spanish. [147] Spanish is mostly spoken in northern Morocco and the Spanish Sahara because Spain had previously occupied those areas. [148] Significant portion of northern Morocco receives Spanish media, television signal and radio airwaves, which reportedly facilitate competence in the language in the region. After Morocco declared independence in 1956, French and Arabic became the main languages of administration and education, causing the role of Spanish to decline. According to a 2012 study by the Government of Spain, 98% of Moroccans spoke Moroccan Arabic, 63% spoke French, 43% Amazigh, 14% spoke English, and 10% spoke Spanish. Main article: Culture of Morocco. The Kasbah of Aït Benhaddou, built by the Berbers from the 14th century onwards. Morocco is a country with a rich culture and civilisation. Through Moroccan history, it has hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans, Andalusians). All those civilisations have affected the social structure of Morocco. Since independence, a veritable blossoming has taken place in painting and sculpture, popular music, amateur theatre, and filmmaking. [151] The Moroccan National Theatre (founded 1956) offers regular productions of Moroccan and French dramatic works. Art and music festivals take place throughout the country during the summer months, among them the World Sacred Music Festival at Fès. Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage. Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles. Main article: Moroccan architecture. A Moroccan living room. This section is an excerpt from Moroccan architecture[edit]. A traditional Moroccan townscape in Chefchaouen. Moroccan architecture refers to the architecture characteristic of Morocco throughout its history and up to modern times. The country’s diverse geography and long history, marked by successive waves of settlers through both migration and military conquest, are all reflected in its architecture. This architectural heritage ranges from ancient Roman and Berber sites to 20th-century colonial and modern architecture. The most recognizably “Moroccan” architecture, however, is the traditional architecture that developed in the Islamic period (7th century and after) which dominates much of Morocco’s documented history and its existing heritage. [155][156] This “Islamic architecture” of Morocco was part of a wider cultural and artistic complex, often referred to as “Hispano-Moorish” art, which characterized Morocco, al-Andalus (Muslim Spain and Portugal), and parts of Algeria and even Tunisia. [157][158][159][160] It blended influences from Berber culture in North Africa, pre-Islamic Spain (Roman, Byzantine, and Visigothic), and contemporary artistic currents in the Islamic Middle East to elaborate a unique style over centuries with recognizable features such as the “Moorish” arch, riad gardens (courtyard gardens with a symmetrical four-part division), and elaborate geometric and arabesque motifs in wood, stucco, and tilework (notably zellij). [157][158][161][162] Although Moroccan Berber architecture is not strictly separate from the rest of Moroccan architecture, many structures and architectural styles are distinctively associated with traditionally Berber or Berber-dominated regions of Morocco such as the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara and pre-Sahara regions. [163] These mostly rural regions are marked by numerous kasbahs (fortresses) and ksour (fortified villages) shaped by local geography and social structures, of which one of the most famous is Ait Benhaddou. [164] They are typically made of rammed earth and decorated with local geometric motifs. Far from being isolated from other historical artistic currents around them, the Berbers of Morocco (and across North Africa) adapted the forms and ideas of Islamic architecture to their own conditions and in turn contributed to the formation of Western Islamic art, particularly during their political domination of the region over the centuries of Almoravid, Almohad, and Marinid rule. Modern architecture in Morocco includes many examples of early 20th-century Art Deco and local neo-Moorish (or Mauresque) architecture constructed during the French (and Spanish) colonial occupation of the country between 1912 and 1956 (or until 1958 for Spain). [165][166] In the later 20th century, after Morocco regained its independence, some new buildings continued to pay tribute to traditional Moroccan architecture and designs, as exemplified by the massive Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca completed in 1993. [167] Modernist architecture is also evident in contemporary constructions, not only for regular everyday structures but also in major prestige projects. Main article: Moroccan literature. Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber and French. Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakesh, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library. Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Three generations of writers especially shaped 20th century Moroccan literature. The third generation is that of writers of the sixties. Moroccan literature then flourished with writers such as Mohamed Choukri, Driss Chraïbi, Mohamed Zafzaf and Driss El Khouri. Those writers were an important influence the many Moroccan novelists, poets and playwrights that were still to come. During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williams and William S. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Abdelkrim Ghallab, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. Orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Berber. Main article: Music of Morocco. Moroccan music is of Arabic, Berber and sub-Saharan origins. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is trance music with historical origins in Islamic music. Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout Northwest Africa. It probably evolved under the Moors in Cordoba, and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. A genre known as Contemporary Andalusian Music and art is the brainchild of Morisco visual artist/composer/oudist Tarik Banzi, founder of the Al-Andalus Ensemble. A group of Jilala musicians in 1900. Aita is a Bedouin musical style sung in the countryside. Chaabi (“popular”) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and, in particular, hip hop. Morocco participated in the 1980 Eurovision Song Contest, where it finished in the penultimate position. Main articles: Media of Morocco and Cinema of Morocco. Cinema in Morocco has a long history, stretching back over a century to the filming of Le chevrier Marocain (“The Moroccan Goatherd”) by Louis Lumière in 1897. Between that time and 1944, many foreign movies were shot in the country, especially in the Ouarzazate area. In 1944, the Moroccan Cinematographic Center (CCM), the nation’s film regulatory agency, was established. Studios were also opened in Rabat. In 1952, Orson Welles’ Othello won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival under the Moroccan flag. However, the Festival’s musicians did not play the Moroccan national anthem, as no one in attendance knew what it was. [171] Six years later, Mohammed Ousfour would create the first Moroccan movie, Le fils maudit (“The Damned Son”). In 1968, the first Mediterranean Film Festival was held in Tangier. In its current incarnation, the event is held in Tetouan. This was followed in 1982 with the first national festival of cinema, which was held in Rabat. In 2001, the first International Film Festival of Marrakech (FIFM) was also held in Marrakech. Main article: Moroccan cuisine. Moroccan cuisine is considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. [172] The cuisine of Morocco is mainly a fusion of Moorish, European and Mediterranean cuisines. Spices are used extensively in Moroccan cuisine. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients such as saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. The main Moroccan dish most people are familiar with is couscous, [173] the old national delicacy. Beef is the most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco, usually eaten in a Tagine with vegetables or legumes. Chicken is also very commonly used in Tagines, knowing that one of the most famous tagine is the Tagine of Chicken, potatoes and olives. Lamb is also consumed, but as Northwest African sheep breeds store most of their fat in their tails, Moroccan lamb does not have the pungent flavour that Western lamb and mutton have. Poultry is also very common, and the use of seafood is increasing in Moroccan food. In addition, there are dried salted meats and salted preserved meats such as kliia/khlia[174] and “g’did” which are used to flavor tagines or used in “el ghraif” a folded savory Moroccan pancake. Among the most famous Moroccan dishes are Couscous, Pastilla (also spelled Bsteeya or Bestilla), Tajine, Tanjia and Harira. Although the latter is a soup, it is considered as a dish in itself and is served as such or with dates especially during the month of Ramadan. Pork consumption is forbidden in accordance with Sharia, religious laws of Islam. A big part of the daily meal is bread. Bread in Morocco is principally from durum wheat semolina known as khobz. Bakeries are very common throughout Morocco and fresh bread is a staple in every city, town and village. The most common is whole grain coarse ground or white flour bread. There are also a number of flat breads and pulled unleavened pan-fried breads. The most popular drink is “atai”, green tea with mint leaves and other ingredients. Tea occupies a very important place in the culture of Morocco and is considered an art form. It is served not only at mealtimes but all through the day, and it is especially a drink of hospitality, commonly served whenever there are guests. It is served to guests, and it is impolite to refuse it. Main article: Sport in Morocco. Football is the country’s most popular sport, popular among the urban youth in particular. In 1986, Morocco became the first Arab and African country to qualify for the second round of the FIFA World Cup. Morocco was originally scheduled to host the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, [175] but refused to host the tournament on the scheduled dates because of fears over the ebola outbreak on the continent. [176] Morocco made five attempts to host the FIFA World Cup but lost five times to United States, France, Germany, South Africa and Canada/Mexico/United States. At the 1984 Olympic Games, two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field. Nawal El Moutawakel won in the 400 metres hurdles; she was the first woman from an Arab or Islamic country to win an Olympic gold medal. Saïd Aouita won the 5000 metres at the same games. Hicham El Guerrouj won gold medals for Morocco at the 2004 Summer Olympics in the 1500 metres and 5000 metres and holds several world records in the mile run. Spectator sports in Morocco traditionally centered on the art of horsemanship until European sports-football, polo, swimming, and tennis-were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Tennis and golf have become popular. [citation needed] Several Moroccan professional players have competed in international competition, and the country fielded its first Davis Cup team in 1999. Rugby came to Morocco in the early 20th century, mainly by the French who occupied the country. [177] As a result, Moroccan rugby was tied to the fortunes of France, during the first and second World War, with many Moroccan players going away to fight. [177] Like many other Maghreb nations, Moroccan rugby tended to look to Europe for inspiration, rather than to the rest of Africa. Kickboxing is also popular in Morocco. [citation needed] The Moroccan-Dutch Badr Hari, heavyweight kickboxer and martial artist, is a former K-1 heavyweight champion and K-1 World Grand Prix 2008 and 2009 finalist. Main article: Education in Morocco. Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane. Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school. The estimated literacy rate for the country in 2012 was 72%. [178] In September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries such as Cuba, Pakistan, India and Turkey the “UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize”. Morocco has more than four dozen universities, institutes of higher learning, and polytechnics dispersed at urban centres throughout the country. Its leading institutions include Mohammed V University in Rabat, the country’s largest university, with branches in Casablanca and Fès; the Hassan II Agriculture and Veterinary Institute in Rabat, which conducts leading social science research in addition to its agricultural specialties; and Al-Akhawayn University in Ifrane, the first English-language university in Northwest Africa, [180] inaugurated in 1995 with contributions from Saudi Arabia and the United States. The al-Qarawiyin University, founded by Fatima al-Fihri in the city of Fez in 859 as a madrasa, [181] is considered by some sources, including UNESCO, to be the “oldest university of the world”. [182] Morocco has also some of prestigious postgraduate schools, including: l’Institut National des Postes et Télécommunication (INPT), École Nationale Supérieure d’Électricité et de Mecanique (ENSEM), EMI, ISCAE, INSEA, National School of Mineral Industry, École Hassania des Travaux Publics, Les Écoles nationales de commerce et de gestion, École supérieure de technologie de Casablanca. Main article: Health in Morocco. Many efforts are made by countries around the world to address health issues and eradicate disease, Morocco included. Child health, maternal health, and diseases are all components of health and well-being. Morocco is a developing country that has made many strides to improve these categories. However, Morocco still has many health issues to improve on. [184] In data from the World Bank, Morocco experiences high infant mortality rates at 20 deaths per 1,000 births (2017)[185] and high maternal mortality rates at 121 deaths per 100,000 births (2015). The government of Morocco sets up surveillance systems within the already existing healthcare system to monitor and collect data. Mass education in hygiene is implemented in primary education schools which are free for residents of Morocco. The second reform created a fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms improved access to high-quality care. Infant mortality has improved significantly since 1960 when there were 144 deaths per 1,000 live births, in 2000, 42 per 1,000 live births, and now it is 20 per 1,000 live births. [185] The country’s under-five mortality rate dropped by 60% between 1990 and 2011. According to data from the World Bank, [185] the present mortality rate is still very high, over seven times higher than in neighboring country Spain. In 2014, Morocco adopted a national plan to increase progress on maternal and child health. [187] The Moroccan Plan was started by the Moroccan Minister of Health, Dr. El Houssaine Louardi, and Dr. Ala Alwan, WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, on 13 November 2013 in Rabat. [187] Morocco has made significant progress in reducing deaths among both children and mothers. Based on World Bank data, the nation’s maternal mortality ratio fell by 67% between 1990 and 2010. [186] In 2014, spending on healthcare accounted for 5.9% of the country’s GDP. [188] Since 2014, spending on healthcare as part of the GDP has decreased. However, health expenditure per capita (PPP) has steadily increased since 2000. [189] In 2016 the life expectancy at birth was 74.3, or 73.3 for men and 75.4 for women, and there were 6.3 physicians and 8.9 nurses and midwives per 10,000 inhabitants. [190] In 2017, Morocco ranked 16th out of 29 countries on the Global Youth Wellbeing Index. [191] Moroccan youths experience a lower self-harm rate than the global index by an average of 4 encounters per year. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
  • Framing: Unframed
  • Listed By: Dealer or Reseller
  • Date of Creation: 1955
  • Color: Black & White
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print
  • Antique: No
  • Type: Photograph

Young African American Couple Probably Man & Wife Antique Tintype Photos 1800s

Young African American Couple Probably Man & Wife Antique Tintype Photos 1800s

Young African American Couple Probably Man & Wife Antique Tintype Photos 1800s

Young African American Couple Probably Man & Wife Antique Tintype Photos 1800s

Young African American Couple Probably Man & Wife Antique Tintype Photos 1800s

Two original tintypes, found side-by-side in an deteriorated album. Dimensions are about 3.5″ tall x 2.25″ and 2.5 wide. Very good antique condition with a few light bends. Black ethnic rare 1860s vintage. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Photographic Images\Photographs”. The seller is “jack_mord” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Production Technique: Tintype
  • Type: Photograph
  • Antique: Yes
  • Color: Black & White
  • Photo Type: Tintype
  • Subject: Ethnic
  • Time Period Manufactured: Vintage & Antique (Pre-1940)
  • Original/Reprint: Original Print

7 Amazing Black U0026 White Photographers To Learn Secrets From



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